According to author’s view, facial modelling is a part of new investigation’s branch – geological forecasting of sedimentary basin’s lithological structure based on seismic and geological data. Previous author’s articles deals with the conceptual model of sedimentary basin constructed for the solution of this problem, and with results of it’s application for vendian terrigenous basin of Siberian Platform. It is very necessary to approbate this model for sedimentary basins of various genetic types. Therefore the main goal of this articles is to attract attention to this issue. It presents systematic analyses of facial modeling as a scientific discipline.

The object of facial modeling is sedimentary basins, the subject - their models as systems of lithological bodies that are in regular spatial relations. The purpose of facial modeling is to construct a conceptual lithological model of the sedimentary basin as an a priori basis for seismic data interpretation. Tasks of the facial modeling are the identification and the forecasting of lithological bodies. The general method of facial modeling is interpolation and extrapolation of lithological functions on the basis of natural lateral sequence of facies and vertical sequences of lithotypes at the well points. The main tool of facial modeling is a conceptual model of the sedimentary basin which describes it as a vertical sequence of facial series bounded by facial unconformities.

By using a simple model example, the facies modeling algorithm was demonstrated. The concept of “facial-conforming sequence of strata” is introduced, which is an explication of the idea of genetically related strata. The concept of "facial unconformity" is introduced, which is an explication of the of N.B. Vassoevich’s idea about mutational boundaries. A classification of facial unconformities is proposed. The facial unconformities of the first kind are the isochronous boundary, which originates in the results of changes of the sedimentary basin’s type. The facial unconformities of the second kind are the isochronous boundary, which originates mainly in the results of transgressions and regressions. The concept of "facial series" is proposed. Facial series is a geological body bounded by facial unconformities. The facial series is a regularly organized lateral sequence of facies, and it is the common object of facial modeling.

References

1. Seismic stratigraphy — Applications to hydrocarbon exploration: edited by Payton Ch.E., Publ. of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1977.

2. Il’in A.S., Structural sedimentology - a new direction in the study of sedimentation (In Russ.), Geologiya i razvedka, 1991, no. 7, pp. 33–46.

3. Catuneanu O., Principles of sequence stratigraphy, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006, 375 p.

4. Catuneanu O., Abreu V., Bhattacharya J.P. et al., Towards the standartization of sequence stratigtaphy, Earth-Science Reviews, 2009, V. 92, pp. 1–33.

5. Catuneanu O., Galloway W.E., Kendall C.G.St.C. et al., Sequence stratigraphy: methodology and nomenclature, Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 2011, V. 44, pp. 173–245.

6. Karogodin Yu.N., Vvedenie v neftyanuyu litmologiyu (Introduction to petroleum lithmology), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1990, 240 p.

7. Lebedev M.V., Chernova L.S., Facies models of terrigenous Vendian deposits of the Northeast of the Nepa-Botuobinsk anteclise (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 1996, no. 10, pp. 51–64.

8. Lebedev M.V., Facies unconformity in sedimentary basins (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2006, no. 10, pp. 62–68.

9. Lebedev M.V., Facies series in sedimentary basins (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 3, pp. 8–16.

10. Lebedev M.V., Facies model of the top of the Vendian terrigene sediments in the north-east of Nepsko-Botuobin petroleum region (the Siberian platform) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 11, pp. 38–51.

11. Salin Yu.S., Stratigraficheskaya korrelyatsiya (Stratigraphic correlation), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 157 p.

12. Salin Yu.S., Konstruktivnaya stratigrafiya (Constructive stratigraphy), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, 173 p.

13. Stratigrafiya i matematika. Metodologicheskie, teoreticheskie i organi-zatsionnye voprosy, svyazannye s primeneniem matematicheskikh metodov i EVM v stratigrafii (Stratigraphy and mathematics. Methodological, theoretical and organizational issues related to the application of mathematical methods and computers in stratigraphy): edited by Kosygin Yu.A., Salin Yu.S., Solov’ev V.A., Khabarovsk: Publ. of Institute of Tectonics and Geophysics, 1974, 203 p.

14. Voronin Yu.A., Borovikov A.M., Salin Yu.S. et al., Stratigraphic modeling using computers (In Russ.), Matematicheskie problemy geofiziki, 1971, V. 2, pp. 295–304.

15. Voronin Yu.A., Eganov E.A., Metodologicheskie voprosy primeneniya matematicheskikh metodov v geologii (Methodological issues of application of mathematical methods in geology), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1974, 85 p.

16. Beyzel’ A.L., The model of forming oil and gas reservoir on the basis of geographical cycle concept (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering, 2010, V. 316, no. 1, pp. 52-57.According to author’s view, facial modelling is a part of new investigation’s branch – geological forecasting of sedimentary basin’s lithological structure based on seismic and geological data. Previous author’s articles deals with the conceptual model of sedimentary basin constructed for the solution of this problem, and with results of it’s application for vendian terrigenous basin of Siberian Platform. It is very necessary to approbate this model for sedimentary basins of various genetic types. Therefore the main goal of this articles is to attract attention to this issue. It presents systematic analyses of facial modeling as a scientific discipline.

The object of facial modeling is sedimentary basins, the subject - their models as systems of lithological bodies that are in regular spatial relations. The purpose of facial modeling is to construct a conceptual lithological model of the sedimentary basin as an a priori basis for seismic data interpretation. Tasks of the facial modeling are the identification and the forecasting of lithological bodies. The general method of facial modeling is interpolation and extrapolation of lithological functions on the basis of natural lateral sequence of facies and vertical sequences of lithotypes at the well points. The main tool of facial modeling is a conceptual model of the sedimentary basin which describes it as a vertical sequence of facial series bounded by facial unconformities.

By using a simple model example, the facies modeling algorithm was demonstrated. The concept of “facial-conforming sequence of strata” is introduced, which is an explication of the idea of genetically related strata. The concept of "facial unconformity" is introduced, which is an explication of the of N.B. Vassoevich’s idea about mutational boundaries. A classification of facial unconformities is proposed. The facial unconformities of the first kind are the isochronous boundary, which originates in the results of changes of the sedimentary basin’s type. The facial unconformities of the second kind are the isochronous boundary, which originates mainly in the results of transgressions and regressions. The concept of "facial series" is proposed. Facial series is a geological body bounded by facial unconformities. The facial series is a regularly organized lateral sequence of facies, and it is the common object of facial modeling.

References

1. Seismic stratigraphy — Applications to hydrocarbon exploration: edited by Payton Ch.E., Publ. of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1977.

2. Il’in A.S., Structural sedimentology - a new direction in the study of sedimentation (In Russ.), Geologiya i razvedka, 1991, no. 7, pp. 33–46.

3. Catuneanu O., Principles of sequence stratigraphy, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006, 375 p.

4. Catuneanu O., Abreu V., Bhattacharya J.P. et al., Towards the standartization of sequence stratigtaphy, Earth-Science Reviews, 2009, V. 92, pp. 1–33.

5. Catuneanu O., Galloway W.E., Kendall C.G.St.C. et al., Sequence stratigraphy: methodology and nomenclature, Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 2011, V. 44, pp. 173–245.

6. Karogodin Yu.N., Vvedenie v neftyanuyu litmologiyu (Introduction to petroleum lithmology), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1990, 240 p.

7. Lebedev M.V., Chernova L.S., Facies models of terrigenous Vendian deposits of the Northeast of the Nepa-Botuobinsk anteclise (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 1996, no. 10, pp. 51–64.

8. Lebedev M.V., Facies unconformity in sedimentary basins (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2006, no. 10, pp. 62–68.

9. Lebedev M.V., Facies series in sedimentary basins (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 3, pp. 8–16.

10. Lebedev M.V., Facies model of the top of the Vendian terrigene sediments in the north-east of Nepsko-Botuobin petroleum region (the Siberian platform) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 11, pp. 38–51.

11. Salin Yu.S., Stratigraficheskaya korrelyatsiya (Stratigraphic correlation), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 157 p.

12. Salin Yu.S., Konstruktivnaya stratigrafiya (Constructive stratigraphy), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, 173 p.

13. Stratigrafiya i matematika. Metodologicheskie, teoreticheskie i organi-zatsionnye voprosy, svyazannye s primeneniem matematicheskikh metodov i EVM v stratigrafii (Stratigraphy and mathematics. Methodological, theoretical and organizational issues related to the application of mathematical methods and computers in stratigraphy): edited by Kosygin Yu.A., Salin Yu.S., Solov’ev V.A., Khabarovsk: Publ. of Institute of Tectonics and Geophysics, 1974, 203 p.

14. Voronin Yu.A., Borovikov A.M., Salin Yu.S. et al., Stratigraphic modeling using computers (In Russ.), Matematicheskie problemy geofiziki, 1971, V. 2, pp. 295–304.

15. Voronin Yu.A., Eganov E.A., Metodologicheskie voprosy primeneniya matematicheskikh metodov v geologii (Methodological issues of application of mathematical methods in geology), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1974, 85 p.

16. Beyzel’ A.L., The model of forming oil and gas reservoir on the basis of geographical cycle concept (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering, 2010, V. 316, no. 1, pp. 52-57.