Connate water of the organocarbonate shale rocks of Domanic deposits

UDK: 550.8.023
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-5-84-89
Key words: water content, Domanic formation, evaporation method, Dean-Stark method, salinity, aqueous extracts
Authors: E.S. Kazak (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), E.V. Kozlova (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), T.I. Karamov (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), N.N. Bogdanovich (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), D.B. Chizhov (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)

The paper presents the results of the connate water study of the Upper Devonian organo-carbonate shale rocks of the Bym-Kungur Monocline of the Volga-Ural oil and gas-bearing province using an integrated workflow. The workflow was specially developed for low permeable shale rocks. It included the determination of 1) the pore water content (free and loosely bound types) using the Dean – Stark and evaporation methods, 2) the chemically bound water content by the thermogravimetric analysis coupled to differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 3) the ion-salt complex composition using aqueous extracts, 4) the mineral composition by XRD analysis, 5) the cation exchange capacity (CEC) values by the modified alcoholic ammonium chloride method, 6) the organic matter quality and content by the Rock-Eval pyrolysis and 7) the lithological and petrographic description of rock sections. We studied a set of representative samples of the Sargaev, Domanic and Mendym horizons from one well with the maximum preserved natural water saturation. We found that the rock samples have a high heterogenety of the mineral and organic matter composition. The investigated samples contained residual formation water of 0.03–0.43 wt.%. The amount of chemically bound water are in a range of 0.04–1.02 wt.% and exceeds free and loosely bound water. Average of CEC of studied samples is 5.79 meq/kg and depends on the clay content. The salinity of aqueous extracts from the natural rock samples varies in the range from 0.24 to 0.94 g/L, pH – from 7.81 to 9.08. The chlorine and sodium dominate in the aqueous extract composition. The clay contents and the presence of significant amount of organic matter in the rocks define the variation of the ion-salt complex composition. The obtained results fill the knowledge gaps in the petrophysical interpretation of well logs, as well as general Domanic reservoir characterization and reserves estimation. The research novelty is in using a unique suite of laboratory methods adapted for low permeable carbonate shale rocks with the initial water content of less than 1 wt.%.

References

1. Lafargue E., Espitalie J., Marquis F., Pillot D., Rock-Eval 6 Application in Hydrocarbon Exploration, Production and in Soil Contamination Studies, Revue de l’Institut Français du Petrole, 1994, V. 53, no. 4, pp. 421–437.

2. Lopatin N.P., Emets T.P., Piroliz v neftegazovoy geologii (Pyrolysis in oil and gas geology), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 143 p.

3.  Kozlova E.V., Fadeeva N.P., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Geochemical technique of organic matter research in deposits enriched in kerogen (the Bazhenov formation, West Siberia) (In Russ.), Vestnik MGU. Seriya 4. Geologiya = Moscow University Geology Bulletin , 2015, no. 5, pp. 44–54.

4. Recommended practices for Core Analysis. RP 40, API Publishing Services, 1998, 220 p.

5. Sondergeld C.H. et al., Micro-structural studies of gas shales, SPE-131771-MS, 2010.

6. Kazak E.S., Kazak A.V., A novel laboratory method for reliable water content determination of shale reservoir rocks, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2019, V. 183, pp. 1–19, URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920410519307223.

7. Kazak E.S. et al., Quantification of residual pore water content and analysis of water extract of the Bazhenov formation samples (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 48–52, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-48-52.

8. Kazak E.S., Kazak A.V. et al., The efficient method of water content determination in low-permeable rocks of Bazhenov formation (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 7, pp. 2–7.

9. Allen Handwerger D., Keller J., Vaughn K., Improved petrophysical core measurements on tight shale reservoirs using retort and crushed samples,

SPE-147456-MS, 2011.

10. Karamov T., Bogdanovich N. et al., Pore space analysis of Domanic formation rocks, Proceedings of EAGE/SPE workshop on shale science 2019 – Shale sciences: Theory and practice, Moscow, 8–9 April 2019.

11. Karamov T., Mukhametdinova A., Bogdanovich N., Plotnikov V., Khakimova Z., Pore structure investigation of Upper Devonian organic-rich shales within the Verkhnekamsk Depression, Proceedings 19th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2019, Albena, 2019, DOI:10.5593/sgem2019/1.2/S06.133.

12. Gutman I.S., Potemkin G.N., Balaban I.Yu. et al., Methodical methods for specifying the pyrolytic parameters for an objective oil resources assessment of the Bazhenov formation of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 80–85.

13. Batalin O.Yu., Vafina N.G., Forms of free-hydrocarbon capture by kerogen (In Russ.), Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal prikladnykh i fundamental'nykh issledovaniy, 2013, no. 10, pp. 418–425.

14. Sacchi E., Michelot J., Pitsch H. et al., Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding, Hydrogeology Journal, 2001, no. 1, pp. 17–33, https://doi.org/10.1007/s100400000113.

15. Kazak E.S., Bogdanovich N.N., Kozlova E.V., Plotnikov V.V., Porody domanikovogo gorizonta kak neorganicheskie ionity (Rocks of the Domanik horizon as inorganic ion exchangers), Proceedings of 20th Anniversary Scientific and Practical Conference on Geological Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas Fields "Geomodel 2018", 10–14 September 2018, Gelendzhik, 2018, pp. 1–4, http: //doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201802437.

The paper presents the results of the connate water study of the Upper Devonian organo-carbonate shale rocks of the Bym-Kungur Monocline of the Volga-Ural oil and gas-bearing province using an integrated workflow. The workflow was specially developed for low permeable shale rocks. It included the determination of 1) the pore water content (free and loosely bound types) using the Dean – Stark and evaporation methods, 2) the chemically bound water content by the thermogravimetric analysis coupled to differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 3) the ion-salt complex composition using aqueous extracts, 4) the mineral composition by XRD analysis, 5) the cation exchange capacity (CEC) values by the modified alcoholic ammonium chloride method, 6) the organic matter quality and content by the Rock-Eval pyrolysis and 7) the lithological and petrographic description of rock sections. We studied a set of representative samples of the Sargaev, Domanic and Mendym horizons from one well with the maximum preserved natural water saturation. We found that the rock samples have a high heterogenety of the mineral and organic matter composition. The investigated samples contained residual formation water of 0.03–0.43 wt.%. The amount of chemically bound water are in a range of 0.04–1.02 wt.% and exceeds free and loosely bound water. Average of CEC of studied samples is 5.79 meq/kg and depends on the clay content. The salinity of aqueous extracts from the natural rock samples varies in the range from 0.24 to 0.94 g/L, pH – from 7.81 to 9.08. The chlorine and sodium dominate in the aqueous extract composition. The clay contents and the presence of significant amount of organic matter in the rocks define the variation of the ion-salt complex composition. The obtained results fill the knowledge gaps in the petrophysical interpretation of well logs, as well as general Domanic reservoir characterization and reserves estimation. The research novelty is in using a unique suite of laboratory methods adapted for low permeable carbonate shale rocks with the initial water content of less than 1 wt.%.

References

1. Lafargue E., Espitalie J., Marquis F., Pillot D., Rock-Eval 6 Application in Hydrocarbon Exploration, Production and in Soil Contamination Studies, Revue de l’Institut Français du Petrole, 1994, V. 53, no. 4, pp. 421–437.

2. Lopatin N.P., Emets T.P., Piroliz v neftegazovoy geologii (Pyrolysis in oil and gas geology), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 143 p.

3.  Kozlova E.V., Fadeeva N.P., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Geochemical technique of organic matter research in deposits enriched in kerogen (the Bazhenov formation, West Siberia) (In Russ.), Vestnik MGU. Seriya 4. Geologiya = Moscow University Geology Bulletin , 2015, no. 5, pp. 44–54.

4. Recommended practices for Core Analysis. RP 40, API Publishing Services, 1998, 220 p.

5. Sondergeld C.H. et al., Micro-structural studies of gas shales, SPE-131771-MS, 2010.

6. Kazak E.S., Kazak A.V., A novel laboratory method for reliable water content determination of shale reservoir rocks, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2019, V. 183, pp. 1–19, URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920410519307223.

7. Kazak E.S. et al., Quantification of residual pore water content and analysis of water extract of the Bazhenov formation samples (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 48–52, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-48-52.

8. Kazak E.S., Kazak A.V. et al., The efficient method of water content determination in low-permeable rocks of Bazhenov formation (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 7, pp. 2–7.

9. Allen Handwerger D., Keller J., Vaughn K., Improved petrophysical core measurements on tight shale reservoirs using retort and crushed samples,

SPE-147456-MS, 2011.

10. Karamov T., Bogdanovich N. et al., Pore space analysis of Domanic formation rocks, Proceedings of EAGE/SPE workshop on shale science 2019 – Shale sciences: Theory and practice, Moscow, 8–9 April 2019.

11. Karamov T., Mukhametdinova A., Bogdanovich N., Plotnikov V., Khakimova Z., Pore structure investigation of Upper Devonian organic-rich shales within the Verkhnekamsk Depression, Proceedings 19th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2019, Albena, 2019, DOI:10.5593/sgem2019/1.2/S06.133.

12. Gutman I.S., Potemkin G.N., Balaban I.Yu. et al., Methodical methods for specifying the pyrolytic parameters for an objective oil resources assessment of the Bazhenov formation of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 80–85.

13. Batalin O.Yu., Vafina N.G., Forms of free-hydrocarbon capture by kerogen (In Russ.), Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal prikladnykh i fundamental'nykh issledovaniy, 2013, no. 10, pp. 418–425.

14. Sacchi E., Michelot J., Pitsch H. et al., Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding, Hydrogeology Journal, 2001, no. 1, pp. 17–33, https://doi.org/10.1007/s100400000113.

15. Kazak E.S., Bogdanovich N.N., Kozlova E.V., Plotnikov V.V., Porody domanikovogo gorizonta kak neorganicheskie ionity (Rocks of the Domanik horizon as inorganic ion exchangers), Proceedings of 20th Anniversary Scientific and Practical Conference on Geological Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas Fields "Geomodel 2018", 10–14 September 2018, Gelendzhik, 2018, pp. 1–4, http: //doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201802437.


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