Reconstruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formation in Tengiz-Karaton uplift zone based on petroleum geochemistry analyse

UDK: 553.98
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-5-41-44
Key words: Tengiz-Karaton uplift zone, petroleum source rocks, gas chromatography, biomarker analysis, carbon isotope analysis, isoprenoids, normal alkanes
Authors: I.V. Valdaev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), K.O. Iskaziev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), N.N. Kosenkova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), M.I. Trunova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), S.F. Khafizov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)

The article considers the geological structure of the Tengiz-Karaton uplift zone, the history of the geological development of this area and adjacent zones and analyzes information on 12 oil samples collected within the Tengiz-Karaton uplift zone and 2 oil samples collected at the South Emba high. The studies included analysis of the physical and chemical properties and composition of oil, analysis of gas chromatography data, biomarker analysis, and carbon isotope analysis. According to the results of the caried out analyses, two families of oils were identified, which correspond to two source rocks. Oil such as that extracted from the Serpukhov horizon of Tengiz field is characteristic of reef reservoirs that are widely distributed within the Volga-Ural and Timan-Pechora hydrocarbon provinces and are associated with Domanic source rocks. This high-carbon clay-siliceous-carbonate formation was formed in a relatively deep-water basin, during the formation of which the sedimentation conditions changed from deep-sea to shallow-sea. In terms of the amount of isoprenoids and normal alkanes, as well as the distribution of regular steranes, domanic oils are very similar to the deep oil of the Tengiz field, selected from the Serpukhov reservoir. However, the distribution of normal alkanes in this oil indicates the Early or Middle Devonian age of the source rocks, which suggests the existence of uncompensated sedimentation conditions in this time interval. Based on the geological structure of the territory, most likely, the source of generation is located in the Caspian Sea area. The other oils, both from the postsalt and from the subsalt horizons, probably have a single source rock according to the totality of geochemical characteristics. Presumably, these oils were generated in normal marine sediments of Carboniferous age (the Moscow time), and migration to the postsalt complex occurred in areas where salts are pinched out.

References

1. Glubinnoe stroenie i mineral'nye resursy Kazakhstana (Deep structure and mineral resources of Kazakhstan), Part 3. Neft' i gaz (Oil and gas): edited by Daukeev S.Zh., Uzhkenov B.S., Abdulin A.A. et al., Almaty:  Publ. of Informatsionno-analiticheskiy tsentr geologii i mineral'nykh resursov Respubliki Kazakhstan, 2002, 248 p.

2. Report on the geochemical properties, correlation and provenance of oils from the Kazakhstan and Russian sectors of the Pre-Caspian Basin, Simon Petroleum Technology Limited Exploration Services, United Kingdom, 1994.3. Tissot B.P., Welte D.H., Petroleum formation and occurrence, Springer-Verlag Telos, 1984, 699 p.

4. Jacobson S.R., Hatch J.R., Teerman S.C., Askin R.A., Middle Ordovician organic matter assemblages and their effect on Ordovician-derived oils, AAPG Bull., 1998, V. 72, pp. 1090–1100.

5. Peters K.E., Walters C.C., Moldowan J.M., The biomarker guide. V. 2. Biomarkers and isotopes in petroleum exploration and Earth history, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 475–635.

6. Palacas J.G., Carbonate rocks as sources of petroleum: geological and chemical characteristics and oil-source correlations, Proceedings of the Eleventh World Petroleum Congress, 1983, V. 2, Chichester, UK, pp. 31–43.

7. Connan J., Cassou A.M., Properties of gases and petroleum lipids derived from terrestrial kerogen at various maturation levels, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1980, V. 44, pp. 1–23.

8. Waples D.W., Machihara T., Biomarkers for geologists: a practical guide to the application of steranes and triterpanes in petroleum exploration, Tulsa, AAPG, 1991, 91 p.

9. Stupakova A.V., Fadeeva N.P., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Criteria for oil and gas search in Domanic deposits of the Volga-Ural Basin (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2015, no. 2, pp. 77–86.

10. Kiryukhina T.A., Bol'shakova M.A., Stupakova A.V. et al., Lithological and geochemical characteristics of Domanic deposits of Timan-Pechora Basin (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2015, no. 2, pp. 87–100.

11. Abilkhasimov Kh.B., Osobennosti formirovaniya prirodnykh rezervuarov paleozoyskikh otlozheniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny i otsenka perspektiv ikh neftegazonosnosti (Features of the formation of natural reservoirs of the Paleozoic sediments of the Caspian basin and assessment of the prospects of their oil and gas potential), Moscow: Publ. of Academy of Natural Sciences, 2016, 244 p.

The article considers the geological structure of the Tengiz-Karaton uplift zone, the history of the geological development of this area and adjacent zones and analyzes information on 12 oil samples collected within the Tengiz-Karaton uplift zone and 2 oil samples collected at the South Emba high. The studies included analysis of the physical and chemical properties and composition of oil, analysis of gas chromatography data, biomarker analysis, and carbon isotope analysis. According to the results of the caried out analyses, two families of oils were identified, which correspond to two source rocks. Oil such as that extracted from the Serpukhov horizon of Tengiz field is characteristic of reef reservoirs that are widely distributed within the Volga-Ural and Timan-Pechora hydrocarbon provinces and are associated with Domanic source rocks. This high-carbon clay-siliceous-carbonate formation was formed in a relatively deep-water basin, during the formation of which the sedimentation conditions changed from deep-sea to shallow-sea. In terms of the amount of isoprenoids and normal alkanes, as well as the distribution of regular steranes, domanic oils are very similar to the deep oil of the Tengiz field, selected from the Serpukhov reservoir. However, the distribution of normal alkanes in this oil indicates the Early or Middle Devonian age of the source rocks, which suggests the existence of uncompensated sedimentation conditions in this time interval. Based on the geological structure of the territory, most likely, the source of generation is located in the Caspian Sea area. The other oils, both from the postsalt and from the subsalt horizons, probably have a single source rock according to the totality of geochemical characteristics. Presumably, these oils were generated in normal marine sediments of Carboniferous age (the Moscow time), and migration to the postsalt complex occurred in areas where salts are pinched out.

References

1. Glubinnoe stroenie i mineral'nye resursy Kazakhstana (Deep structure and mineral resources of Kazakhstan), Part 3. Neft' i gaz (Oil and gas): edited by Daukeev S.Zh., Uzhkenov B.S., Abdulin A.A. et al., Almaty:  Publ. of Informatsionno-analiticheskiy tsentr geologii i mineral'nykh resursov Respubliki Kazakhstan, 2002, 248 p.

2. Report on the geochemical properties, correlation and provenance of oils from the Kazakhstan and Russian sectors of the Pre-Caspian Basin, Simon Petroleum Technology Limited Exploration Services, United Kingdom, 1994.3. Tissot B.P., Welte D.H., Petroleum formation and occurrence, Springer-Verlag Telos, 1984, 699 p.

4. Jacobson S.R., Hatch J.R., Teerman S.C., Askin R.A., Middle Ordovician organic matter assemblages and their effect on Ordovician-derived oils, AAPG Bull., 1998, V. 72, pp. 1090–1100.

5. Peters K.E., Walters C.C., Moldowan J.M., The biomarker guide. V. 2. Biomarkers and isotopes in petroleum exploration and Earth history, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 475–635.

6. Palacas J.G., Carbonate rocks as sources of petroleum: geological and chemical characteristics and oil-source correlations, Proceedings of the Eleventh World Petroleum Congress, 1983, V. 2, Chichester, UK, pp. 31–43.

7. Connan J., Cassou A.M., Properties of gases and petroleum lipids derived from terrestrial kerogen at various maturation levels, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1980, V. 44, pp. 1–23.

8. Waples D.W., Machihara T., Biomarkers for geologists: a practical guide to the application of steranes and triterpanes in petroleum exploration, Tulsa, AAPG, 1991, 91 p.

9. Stupakova A.V., Fadeeva N.P., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Criteria for oil and gas search in Domanic deposits of the Volga-Ural Basin (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2015, no. 2, pp. 77–86.

10. Kiryukhina T.A., Bol'shakova M.A., Stupakova A.V. et al., Lithological and geochemical characteristics of Domanic deposits of Timan-Pechora Basin (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2015, no. 2, pp. 87–100.

11. Abilkhasimov Kh.B., Osobennosti formirovaniya prirodnykh rezervuarov paleozoyskikh otlozheniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny i otsenka perspektiv ikh neftegazonosnosti (Features of the formation of natural reservoirs of the Paleozoic sediments of the Caspian basin and assessment of the prospects of their oil and gas potential), Moscow: Publ. of Academy of Natural Sciences, 2016, 244 p.



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