April 2017

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04'2017 ( 1122)


S.I. Kudryashov, A.F. Ismagilov, I.G. Khamitov, V.A. Smyslov, K.A. Sedykh, A.A. Kozhemyakin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Optimization of new oil projects search and assessment in Zarubezhneft JSC

Keywords: new assets search, projects assessment, efficiency, optimization

Currently oil and gas companies have to increase their assets portfolio in order to maintain stable and intense development. The process of search and valuation of new projects has become a common practice of both VINC (Vertically-Integrated Oil Companies) and smaller participants of the industry.

The article describes the process of search and valuation of new assets in Zarubezhneft JSC. Three main components determine its efficiency: processes, specialists and tools. The concept of direct search for new projects, integrated asset valuation and search for potential opportunities (upsides) is described. The structure of the process, management of human resources at different stages (search, valuation) and tools (methods and software) which are used in tasks solution, are presented.

The concept that is used by the Company is formalized and tested on numerous real projects (assets both at geological exploration stage and at brownfield stage).

The article contains practical examples of effective search and valuation of new projects. In particular, one of the priority regions of the Company is considered The Middle East, and traditional region of presence Southeast Asia offshore. The article provides real examples of valuation, as well as optimization of projects by searching for upsides at different levels and sectors. For example, Company's experience in preparing a full-scale project for the development of fields (Master Development Plan, MDP) for the asset in the Middle East is noted. An example of realization of projects upsides by cluster approach and integrated assessment is described.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the concept of search and valuation used in Zarubezhneft JSC allows to effectively run this business process. The Company is constantly improving its methods and approaches due to permanent changes in oil and gas industry. Future prospects for the development of new projects search and valuation process are considered.


1. Garcia-Blanco M.T., Seltzer R.N., Chernacov A., Laria G., Mature-asset expertise, SPE 135239-MS, 2010.

2. Chorn L., Bharali N., Murali K., Appraisal and valuation for proven shale play acquisition opportunities, SPE 169829-MS, 2014.

3. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O., Nekhaev S., Karamutdinova D., The Optimal parameters for oil field development (In Russ.), SPE 162089-RU, 2012.

4. Khasanov M.M., Sugaipov D.A., Ushmaev O.S., Development of cost engineering in Gazprom Neft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 1416.

5. Downie A.A., Salazar A., Monsalve M. et al., Integrated Asset Model in Camisea, SPE 142936-MS, 2011.

6. Tesaker O., Arnesen D., Zangl G. et al., Breaking the barriers The Integrated Asset Model, SPE 112223, 2008.

7. Charles C., Okafor breaking the frontiers for effective flow assurance using Integrated Asset Models (IAM), SPE 149537, 2011.

8. Talabi O.A., Nitura J.T., Rodriguez N.J. et al., Modelling pipeline and choke optimization for improved gas field production using an Integrated Asset Model: A case study, SPE 175549, 2015.

9. Ageh E.A., Adegoke A., Uzoh O.J., Using Integrated Production Modeling (IPM) as an optimization tool for field development planning and management, SPE 140625, 2010.

10. Kudryashov S.I., Afanas'ev I.S., Dashevskiy A.A. et al., Integrated approach to oil and gas producing enterprise rates planning in Zarubezhneft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 144148.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-10-16

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A.M. Mastepanov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
On the evolution of world energy forecasts made in 2013/2014 and 2016

Keywords: prices, forecasts and scenarios, the world economy and energy, world's energy consumption and its structure

In the article analyzes the forecasts of the world energy development from the leading analytical centers (the International Energy Agency, the US Energy Information Administration, the OPEC Secretariat, the British Petroleum Group, the Institute of Energy Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation, etc.), made at high oil prices (2013-2014), and after their fall (2016-2017). It is considered how the very fact of the onset of the period of low oil prices was estimated in the forecasts and how the actual price factor was taken into account in various forecasts. It is shown that the factor of the current period of low prices in forecasts is expressed, first of all, in the short and medium term.

Analyzed the evolution of world primary energy consumption estimates, during the period of high oil prices, and after they have fallen sharply. It was revealed that in the forecasts made in 2016/2017, during the period of low oil prices, global energy consumption projections on the same date is lower than the projections of 2013-2014, and attempted to explain this. Investigated the differences in the forecasts made at different times, associated with the structure of the world's energy consumption, and concluded that they apparently are not so much concerned with the influence as to the extent to which the climatic and environmental constraints, including expectations of the implementation of the Paris Agreement on Climate. In general, the analysis of various forecasts shows that the price factor, despite its importance for the current economic activity, on the results of the long-term development of the world energy sector is significantly weaker than one would expect. The reasons for this are not fully understood and require further study.


1. Mastepanov A.M., The world oil market situation: several estimates and forecasts (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2016, no. 2, pp. 720.

2. Mastepanov A.M., About pricing factors the world oil market and the role of shale oil in the process (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 9, pp. 610.

3. Mastepanov A.M., Oil low prices the new prospects of development of the world energy industry (In Russ.), Problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya neftegazovym kompleksom, 2017, no. 1, pp. 56.

4. Mastepanov A.M., The influence of oil prices on the world oil and gas industry development priorities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 812.

5. Energeticheskiy byulleten', 2013, no. 5, URL: http://ac.gov.ru/files/publication/ a/508.pdf

6. URL: http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/pdf/0484(2013).pdf 

7. URL: https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/ieo/pdf/0484(2016).pdf

8. URL: http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication//WEO2014.pdf

9. World Energy Outlook 2016,OECD/IEA, 2016, 684 .

10. URL: http://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/publications/3049.htm

11. URL: http://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/publications/340.htm

12. URL: https://www.eriras.ru/data/7/rus

13. URL: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/energy-outlook/energy-outlook-downloads.html

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-20-25

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A.P. Kondakov, S.R. Bembel, A.I. Tseplyaeva (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
A refinement of the PZ-object geological model based on the geological and geophysical data analysis

Keywords: oil and gas reservoir, pre-Jurassic basement, the foundation formation, seismic prospecting, fault, fracture, well productivity, geological model

Features of geological structure of one of the most perspective oil deposit of Krasnoleninsk arch in Western Siberia, associated with the formation of the basement, are considered. A refinement of the geological model and PZ-object reservoir were carried out on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of seismic prospecting and well testing data and conceptions about the nature of the fracture zones spreading, so an increase of the geological reserve value of the deposit by more than 30% is expected. The main method of such hydrocarbon deposit exploration is 3D seismic prospecting with oilfield and core research.

As the authors recommended, the additional perforation of productive intervals of one of the wells was carried out and the hydraulic fracturing was performed. Recent geophysical and oilfield investigations have shown that the main well stream corresponds to the interval, recommended for additional perforation, which is below than previously executed perforations for all wells. Realized sampling indicated the potential productivity of the lower intervals of the PZ-object. As a result of the work the guidelines for additional perforation of lower intervals of PZ-object in several wells were made.

For effective exploration of these objects the information about natural fractures and faults is required. Its basis is a comprehensive analysis of the seismic prospecting and logging data, as well as the results of the usage of advanced methods of its petrophysical interpretation, and finally, the drilling materials.


1. Koshlyak V.A., Granitoidnye kollektory nefti i gaza (Granitoid oil and gas collectors), Ufa: Tau Publ., 2005, 256 p. 

2. Belonovskaya L.G., Fractured rocks and the basics of oil and gas fractured reservoirs search developed in VNIGRI (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2006, no. 1, pp. 111.

3. Shuster V.L., The formation of zones of uncompacted rocks in the formations of the basement and new seismic technology to map (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2015, no. 7(46), pp. 1416.

4. Pinus O.V., Borisenok D.Yu., Bakhir S.Yu. et al., Using of multiple approach for geological simulation of fractured reservoirs of West Siberian basement (with reference to Maloichskoye field) (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology , 2006, no. 6, pp. 3842.

5. Valyaev B.M., Problema genezisa neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy: teoreticheskie aspekty i prakticheskaya znachimost' (The  problem of the oil and gas deposits genesis: theoretical aspects and practical significance), In: Genezis uglevodorodnykh flyuidov i mestorozhdeniy (Genesis of hydrocarbon fluids and deposits): edited by Dmitrievskiy A.N., Valyaev B.M., Moscow:GEOS Publ., 2006, pp. 1422.

6. Popkov V.I., Zhil'nye zalezhi uglevodorodov: usloviya formirovaniya i metodika poiskov i razvedki (Vein deposits of  hydrocarbons: conditions of formation and methods of prospecting and exploration), In: Genezis uglevodorodnykh flyuidov i mestorozhdeniy (Genesis of hydrocarbon fluids and deposits): edited by Dmitrievskiy A.N., Valyaev B.M., Moscow: GEOS Publ.,  2006, pp. 277285.

7. Blekhman V., Krenov M., Shmar'yan L., Priezzhev I., Modeling technique for fractured terrigenous reservoirs in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Tekhnologii TEK,URL: http://www.oilcapital.ru/technologies/ 2008/01/091102_118283.shtml. 

8. Bembel' S.R., Efimov V.A., Petrophysical interpretation of well geophysical studies and a geological model of an object formed by metamorphic rocks (In Russ.), Collected papers Petrofizika slozhnykh kollektorov: problemy i perspektivy 2015 (Petrophysics of complex reservoirs: Problems and Prospects 2015): edited by Enikeev B.N., Moscow: EAGE Geomodel', 2015, pp. 96116.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-26-30

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Yu.A. Kashnikov, D.V. Shustov, A.E. Kukhtinskii (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), S.A. Kondratiev (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
Geomechanical properties of the terrigenous reservoirs in the oil fields of Western Ural

Keywords: elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, Biot coefficient, hydraulic fractures, static and dynamic parameters
The program and results of the study of geomechanical properties of the terrigenous reservoirs in the oil fields of West Ural is presented. The study was performed using PIK-UIDK/PL triaxial apparatus (made in Russia) which is used to determine static and dynamic geomechanical parameters and reservoir properties (permeability) in reservoir conditions. More than 150 samples were tested in this study. Correlations between static and dynamic properties were established based on the results of conducted tests. In particular, the dependences of static elastic modulus, uniaxial compressive strength and Biot coefficient on the compressional wave velocity were found. It is noted that there is no correlation between static and dynamic Poisson ratio according to the results of this study and many other Russian and foreign studies. However, the correlation between the static Poisson ratio and the data fr om gamma ray logs was found which shows that Poisson ratio is connected with rock shaliness. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion were determined. The correlation between these parameters and the compressional wave velocity was found. The results of Biot and Skempton coefficients determination are presented. The conclusions about the features of the geomechanical parameters are made. The established dependencies were compared with the log data in the interval wh ere hydraulic fracturing was performed. It is noted that the Biot coefficient values calculated using well log data are on average 0.05 higher than the values determined in laboratory conditions. This is due to not only the difference in acoustic signal frequencies between well logging equipment and PIK-UIDK/PL system but also due to the discrepancy of laboratory experiment conditions and conditions the conditions in the well.


1. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, Orsa Press, Alvin, Texas, 2002, 262 p.

2. Timonov A.V., Sudeev I.V., Pestrikov A.V. et al., A new methodology of simulation of hydraulic fracturing at the development of Priobskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 3, pp. 5861.

3. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Kukhtinskiy A.E. et al., Determination of fracture toughness of oil fields rocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 8689.

4. Zoback M., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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6. Fjaer E., Holt R.M., Harsrud P. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanics Hugaru: Elsevier, 2008, 515 p.

7. Hoek E., Martin C.D., Fracture initiation and propagation in intact rock  A review, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2014, V. 6, pp. 287300.

8. Dobrynin V.M., Deformatsii i izmeneniya fizicheskikh svoystv kollektorov nefti i gaza (Deformations and changes in the physical properties of oil and gas collectors), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 239 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-32-35

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V.Yu. Kerimov, A.V. Osipov, A.S. Nefedova (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Hydrocarbon systems of the Pre-Ural fore deep and exploration prospects of the oil and gas accumulations

Keywords: Pre-Ural fore deep, oil and gas occurrence, oil-and-gas source rocks, generation potential, modeling
The article shows the results of four studies of petroleum systems in eastern side of the Ural deflection within the Orenburg region: Lower Devonian, Frasnian, Frasnian-Tournaisian, Visean-Bashkir and Lower Permian. The characteristic elements (oil and gas source rocks, reservoir rocks and confining beds) and are described in terms of the formation of each hydrocarbon system. To evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern side of the Ural deflection applied numerical basin modeling technology, resulting in a constructed three-dimensional geological model of the object. Carried out work allowed to make productivity calculations of oil and gas and maternal sequences of each system and create a predictive model of oil and gas potential of the eastern side of the Ural deflection. According to the results of the research it determined that the ratio of the time of formation of oil and gas traps and generation time, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons may be acceptable for all the studied petroleum systems. The regions of most intense hydrocarbon generation: the generation of centers for all studied the petroleum systems are the southern part of Belsky depression and the northern part of the Caspian syncline. The ways of migration and areas of most likely hydrocarbon-accumulation are defined. For each hydrocarbon system ranging of the study area in terms of oil and gas potential is made and promising areas of geological exploration for oil and gas are identified. The most promising areas within the study area are the southern part of the basin and the northern Bielsko-board part of the Caspian syncline, where accumulations of hydrocarbons are forecast in all four petroleum systems. Within the northern part of the main prospects are associated with Lower Devonian, Frasnian, Frasnian-Tournaisian, and Visean-Bashkir petroleum systems. Prospects of Lower Permian hydrocarbon systems are significantly reduced due to the high risk of unfilled traps most of the territory.


1. Anan'ev V.V., Smelkov V.M., Pronin N.V., Prognostic evaluation of resource base of mendym-domanik formations as main hydrocarbon source of central areas of Volga-Urals oil and gas province (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2007, no. 1, pp. 32-38.

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3. Kerimov V.Yu., Osipov A.V., Lavrenova E.A., The hydrocarbon potential of deep horizons in the south-eastern part of the Volga-Urals oil and gas province (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 3335.

4. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S. et al., The shale hydrocarbons prospects in the low permeability Khadum formation of the Pre-Caucasus (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 5053.

5. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Senin B.V., Lavrenova E.A., Basin modeling tasks at different stages of geological exploration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 2629.

6. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Serikova U.S., Hydrocarbon generation-accumulative system on the territory of Crimea Peninsula and adjacent Azov and Black Seas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oi l Industry, 2015, no. 3, pp. 5660.

7. Kerimov V.Yu., Bondarev A.V., Osipov A.V., Serov S.G., Evolution of petroleum systems in the territory of Baikit anticlise and Kureiskaya syneclise (Eastern Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 5, pp. 3942.

8. Kerimov V.Yu., Osipov A.V., Lavrenova E.A., The hydrocarbon potential of deep horizons in the south-eastern part of the Volga-Urals oil and gas province (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 3335.

9. Kerimov V.Yu, Rachinsky M.Z. et al., Geofluid dynamic concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in natural reservoirs, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016, V. 471, no. 1, pp. 1123-1125. 

10. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Bondarev A.V., Evaluation of the organic carbon content in the low-permeability shale formations (as in the case of the Khadum suite in the Ciscaucasia region), Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 2016, V. 32, no. 6., pp. 32353241.

11. Kerimov V.Yu., Gorbunov A.A., Lavrenova E.A., Osipov A.V., Models of hydrocarbon systems in the Russian PlatformUral junction zone, Lithology and Mineral Resources, 2015, V. 50, no. 5, pp. 394406.

12. Kerimov V.Yu., Lapidus A.L., Yandarbiev N.Sh. et al., Phys icochemical properties of shale strata in the Maikop series of Ciscaucasia, Solid Fuel Chemistry, 2017, V. 51, no. 2, pp. 122130.

13. Kerimov V.Yu., Serikova U.S., Mustaev R.N., Guliev I.S., Deep oil-and-gas content of South Caspian Basin (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 5, pp. 5054.

14. Kerimov V.Yu., Shilov G.Ya., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S., Thermobaric conditions of hydrocarbons accumulations  formation in the low-permeability oil reservoirs of Khadum suite of the Pre-Caucasus (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 811.

15. Kerimov V.Y., Osipov A.V., Mustaev R.N., Monakova A.S., Modeling of petroleum systems in regions with complex geological structure, Proceedings of 16th Science and Applied Research Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development, Geomodel 2014.

16. Guliev I.S., Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Fundamental challenges of the location of oil and gas in the South Caspian Basin, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016, V. 471, no. 1, pp. 11091112.

17. Osipov A.V., Monakova A.S., Zakharchenko M.V., Mustaev R.N., Assessment of caprock fluid-resistive characteristics of Pre-Urals Fore Deep Southern part, Proceedings of 17th Scientific-Practical Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development, Geomodel 2015, 2015.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-36-40

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A.D. Korobov, L.A. Korobova (Saratov National Research State University, RF, Saratov), V.P. Morosov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), D.E. Zagranovskaya, O.A. Zakharova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Authigenic dolomite of Bazhen source successions as indicator of the final stage of hydrocarbon generation

Petrographic observations, substantiated by the X-ray phase examinations, have revealed dissimilar character of the secondary dolomite development within the highly bituminous rocks of the Bazhenov formation. The mineral in question has not been found in any dry holes. In the low- and medium-flow-rate wells (1.60 21.60 tons per day), it, alongside with other minerals, is more or less uniformly distributed in the principal bituminous mass, impregnates it, producing a peculiar starry arch pattern in thin rock sections. In case of high oil influxes (more than 80 tons per day), the amount of newly formed dolomite rises sharply, its nature and localization character alter. It is important to emphasize, that the dry holes are maximally remote from the faults, and the most productive well has been drilled directly within the tectonic dislocation zone. The rest of the low- and medium-flow-rate wells occur in the intermediate positions relative to the faults.

Productivity of the Bazhenov Formation and generation of authigenous dolomite are controlled by the rock heating degree. Increased temperatures (at about 200 ˚) are required for normal dolomite generation. Within the settings of tectonohydrothermal activation of the Western Siberian Plate, hydrocarbon generation in the oil and gas source rocks occurs under the following temperatures: oil from 60 to 170 ˚, oil + gas condensate from 150 to 200 ˚). The investigation results show, that the algal authigenous dolomite from the Bazhenov formation has not resulted from diagenesis; it has originated autonomously, due to heating of the highly bituminous, Mg and Ca-comprising rocks. The absence or the presence of algal dolomite in situ indicates whether the highly bituminous source series of the Bazhenov Formation has been subjected to the stage of final hydrocarbons generation or not. The areas with the occurrences of algal authigenous dolomite should be regarded as the areas of intense (final) hydrocarbons generation by the Bazhenov deposits.


1. Yudovich Ya.E., Ketris M.P., Geokhimiya chernykh slantsev (Geochemistry of black shale), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1988, 272 p.

2. Neruchev S.G., Rogozina E.A., Zelichenko I.A. et al., Neftegazoobrazovanie v otlozheniyakh domanikovogo tipa (Oil and gas formation in the Domanic deposits), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1986, 247 p.

3. Lebedeva G.V., Vtorichnye izmeneniya organomontmorillonitovykh soedineniy v domanikitakh (Secondary changes in organomontmorillonite compounds in Domanis formation), In: Zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya kollektorov slozhnogo stroeniya i prognoz neftegazonosnosti (Patterns of distribution of a complex structure collectors and forecast of oil and gas potential), Leningrad: Nauka Publ. , 1985, pp. 9499.

4. Balushkina N.S., Kalmykov G.A., Kiryukhina T.A. et al., Regularities of structure of Bazhenov horizon and upper parts of Abalak suite in view of oil production prospects (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2013, no. 3, pp. 4861.

5. Korobov A.D. Korobova L.A., Morozov V.P., Linear zones of secondary dolomitization of reservoir rocks of Tevlinsko-Russkinskoye field-markers of migrations paths of oil-bearing fluid (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 5256.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-41-43

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E.A. Manuilova, A.G. Kalmykov, G.A. Kalmykov (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), N.N. Bogdanovich (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), I.A. Karpov, T.V. Mamyashev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Complex method for core samples investigations to determine the parameters of the natural reservoirs and the main characteristics of high-carbon formations

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, complex method of investigation, natural reservoir
In recent years, increased attention is focused on the study of high-carbon formations which are very promising for the oil and gas production and replenishment of the resource base of the oil industry. Unfortunately, at present time there is no approved method for the study of core samples, which allows to evaluate the oil potential of such formations, predict behaviors of their structure and distribution of promising sites in the area, and to assess the feasibility of using different mining methods. Based on the experience of high-carbon formations core samples investigation and analysis of the results the complex method for core samples investigations was developed. This method allows primarily to detect natural (dynamic porosity value of gas is higher than 3%) and technically stimulated oil and gas reservoirs, determine their main characteristics. The mehtod is based on research experiments, that are focused on studying the material composition and structure of rocks, includes measurements of reservoir properties by gas-volumetric method, determination of the main pyrolytic parameters before and after organic solvent extraction, and special research methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography, that combined allow to identify and study the structure of the pore space of rocks and fluids contained therein. The article shows the flow rates of the dynamic porosity, justifying the choice of the boundary value of 3%. The role of kerogen porosity in the formation of the natural reservoir is demonstrated, and methods for studying it are presented. It was shown in the article that parameters for estimating oil and gas reserves and resources in the high-carbon deposits can be determined by the obtained characteristics of rocks.


1. Iskritskaya N.I., Makarevich V.N., Shchepochkina A.A., Main trends in the development of hard-to-extract oil reserves of the Russian Federation (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2015, no. 4, pp. 6266.

2. Kontorovich A.E., Kontorovich V.A., Ryzhkova S.V. et al., Jurassic paleogeography of the West Siberian sedimentary basin (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2013, V. 54, no. 8, pp. 9721012.

3. Ukhlova G.D., Larichev A.I., Mel'nikov N.V., Kos I.M., Sedimentation complexes of the Neocomian of the Ob River Region (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Byulleten' moskovskogo obshchestva ispytateley prirody. Otdel geologicheskiy, 2004, V. 79, pp. 1421.

4. Stroenie i neftegazonosnost' bazhenitov Zapadnoy Sibiri (The structure and oil and gas potential of Western Siberia bazhenite): edited by Nesterov I.I., Tyumen': Publ. of ZapSibNIGNI, 1985, 176 p.

5. Kirichek A.V., Prognoz kollektorov treshchinnogo tipa v produktivnykh porodakh Krasnoleninskogo svoda po rasseyannym volnam (Forecast of fractured reservoirs in the productive rocks of the Krasnoleninsky arch by scattered waves): thesis od candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Tyumen', 2011.

6. Bilibin S.I., Kalmykov G.A., Ganichev D.I., Balushkina N.S., Model of the petroliferous rocks of the Bazhen formation (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2015, no. 3, pp. 514.

7. Bazhenova O.K. et al., Geologiya i geokhimiya nefti i gaza (Geology and geochemistry of oil and gas), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2012, 432 p.

8. Kalmykov G.A., Stroenie bazhenovskogo neftegazonosnogo kompleksa kak osnova prognoza differentsirovannoy nefteproduktivnosti (The structure of the Bazhenov oil and gas bearing complex as the basis for the forecast of differentiated oil production): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2016.

9. Zelenov A.S., Ivanov Yu.L., A study on magnetic field gradient effect on the results of nuclear magnetic resonance measurements (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2015, no. 8, pp. 4252.

10. Kalmykov A.G., Manuilova E.A., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Bazhenov formation phosphate containing interlayers as potential collectors (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 4: Geologiya = Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2016, no. 5, pp. 6066.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-44-47

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E.S. Kazak(Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), N.N. Bogdanovich, A.V. Kazak (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), T.V. Mamiashev, D.K. Kostin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Quantification of residual pore water content and analysis of water extract of the Bazhenov formation samples (Western Siberia)

Keywords: chemical composition of stratal water, Bazhenov formation, cation exchange capacity, pore fluid
The paper presents the results of experimental studies to quantify the residual pore water content in the core samples of the Bazhenov formation with natural water saturation taken from two wells at the Youzhnoye and Vyngayakhinskoye fields, West Siberia using the direct laboratory methods of the investigation (Dean Stark and evaporation methods). The chemical and mineralogical rock samples compositions obtained using the X-ray diffraction analysis are shown here. The quantitative results of the microcomponents (Li, Be, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn Rb, Cs, U, Pb) and rare earth metals (REE) in the pore waters and in the rock samples are found using mass-spectrometric study (ICP-MC) and presented here for the first time. It also contains the measured values of the rocks cation exchange capacity (Pfeffer method) and results of the pore waters composition of Bazhenov formation obtained via composition analysis of the water extracts. It was found that the gravity groundwater content, presumably capillary water, in the studied rock samples is 0.14-2.35 % (wt), the residual pore water content is 0.42-3.65 % (wt). The total content of Na+, K+ and Cl- in the pore waters of the Bazhenov formation are 17.09÷79.21 g/L. Using Pfeffer method it was discovered that the cation exchangers of the studied core samples contain Na+, K+, 2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ that concentrations change with the depth in wells. The measured values of the shales cation-exchange capacity are 3.98÷19.50 meq/100g of rock and correspond to the clay minerals content in them.


1. Stepanov V.P., Akhapkin M.YU., Tabakov V.P., Osnovnyye itogi i perspektivy razrabotki bazhenovskoy svity Salymskogo mestorozhdeniya (In Russ.), Geofizika = Current situation and the further prospects of the Bazhenov suite development in the Salym Field, 2007, no. 4, pp. 211218.

2. Cenegy L.M., McAfee C.A., Kalfayan L.J., Field study of the physical and chemical factors affecting downhole scale deposition in the North Dakota Bakken formation, SPE 140977-MS, 2011.

3. Kazak E.S., Kazak A.V., Bogdanovich N.N., Forma i sostav porovoy vodyporod bazhenovskoy svity po rezultatam laboratornykh issledovaniy (Form and composition of porous water of the rocks of the Bazhenov suite according to the results of laboratory tests), Proceedings of 18th Scientific and Practical Conference on the Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas Fields "EAGE-Geomodel 2016", 1215 September 2016, Gelendzhik.

4. Kireyeva T.A., Kazak E.S., Pore water in the West Siberian Bazhenov formation rocks and their transformation after hydrothermal pressure (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2017, no. 1, pp. 7789.

5. Zaks S.L., Burmistrova V.F., K voprosu issledovaniya sostava i svoystv svyazannoy vody v neftyanykh kollektorakh (On the issue of studying the composition and properties of bound water in the oil reservoir), Proccedings of Petroleum Institute. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1956, V. VII, pp. 222235.

6. Silich V.E., Porovyye vody porod bazhenovskoy svity Salymskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Pore waters of the rocks of the Bazhenov suite of the Salym oil field), Collected papers "Stroyeniye i neftegazonosnost bazhenitov Zapadnoy Sibiri" (The structure and oil and gas content of the bazhents of Western Siberia), 1985, pp. 8791.

7. Zlochevskaya R.I., Korolev V.A., Elektropoverkhnostnyye yavleniya v glinistykh porodakh (Electrosurface phenomena in clay rocks), Moscow Publ. of MSU, 1988, 177 p.

8. Korolev V.A., Associated water in rocks: new facts and problems (In Russ.), Sorosovskiy obrazovatelnyy zhurnal, 1996, no. 9, pp. 7985.

9. Zatenetskaya N.P., Porovyye vody glinistykh porod i ikh rol v formirovanii podzemnykh vod (Pore waters of clay rocks and their role in the formation of groundwater), Moscow: Publ of USSR AS, 1963, 142 p.

10. Zatenetskaya N.P., Porovyye vody osadochnykh porod (Pore waters of sedimentary rocks), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1974, 158 p.

11. Kryukov P.A., Gornyye, pochvennyye i ilovyye rastvory (Mountain, soil and silt solutions), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1971, 219 p.

12. Abramov V.YU., Cryogenic metamorphizaition chemical compozition of underground water (In Russ.), Razvedka i okhrana nedr, 2014, no. 5, pp. 1620.

13. Rikhvanov L.P. et al., Mineralogical and geochemical features of the Bazhenov formation, West Siberia, according to nuclear`physics and electron` microscopic methods of research (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2015, V. 326, no. 1, pp. 5063.

14. Pluman I.I., Uranium content of black bituminous argillites of the Upper Jurassic of the West Siberian Plate(In Russ.), Geokhimiya, 1971, no. 11, pp. 13621368.

15. Ezerskiy D.M. et al., Assessment of water content in rocks of the Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoye khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 3843.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-48-52

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M.G. Khramchenkov, E.A. Korolev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Dynamics of fractures growth in oil saturated carbonate beds of the Republic of Tatarstan

Keywords: carbonate beds, tectonic fractures, fracture dynamics
Tectonic cracks in oil-bearing carbonate sections of the Bashkirian stage of the Republic of Tatarstan were studied. Regularities in the development of cavities of cracks in dense limestones of fluids have been established. An experimental study of the morphology of cracks was carried out. Fissured channels are characterized by varying degrees of openness, twisting outlines, frequent intersections with each other. Some of them are complicated by blowing up the slit-like cavities of leaching. Cracks along their entire length are made with oxidized hydrocarbons. Above the section, the degree of fracture of carbonate rocks is reduced to 1-2 pieces per running meter. Their apparent extent does not exceed 10 cm. The fact of the change in the character of the distribution of cracks in the carbonate massif was theoretically confirmed, depending on the magnitude of their expansion on the nature of the regime of water flow in these cracks. The moderate nature of the flow, in which the flow regime is laminar, leads to a normal distribution of fractures along the transverse dimension (opening). The change in the nature of the flow and the transition to turbulent regime cause a change in the character of the crack distribution in size - it becomes lognormal. An expression is obtained for the dependence of the filtration flow through a system of cracks with dissolving walls (variable opening) versus time. The obtained dependence is compared with the experimental data known from the literature. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental data was demonstrated. The relationships obtained in the work on the basis of modeling can be used to predict the growth of the absolute permeability of the carbonate rock massif in the course of geological evolution or by using enhanced oil recovery methods that lead to a change in hydro-geochemical equilibrium in the water-rock system.


1. Morozov V.P., Korolev E.A., Kol'chugin A.N., Karbonatnye porody vizeyskogo, serpukhovskogo i bashkirskogo yarusov nizhnego i srednego karbona (Carbonate rocks of the Visean, Serpukhov and Bashkir tiers of the Lower and Middle Carboniferous) Kazan': Gart Publ., 2008, 182 p.

2. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov v poristykh plastakh (The fluid flow in porous formations), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 208 p.

3. Tolmachev V.V., Royter F., Inzhenernoe karstovedenie (Engineering karstology), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1990, 151 p.

4. Levich V.G., Fiziko-khimicheskaya gidrodinamika (Physical-chemical hydrodynamics), Moscow: Publ. of AS of USSR, 1952, 700 p.

5. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1982, 732 .

6. Hanna B.R., Rajaram H., Influence of aperture variability on dissolutional growth of fissures in karst formations, Water Res. Research., 1998, V. 34, no. 11, pp. 28432853.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-54-57

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M.Ya. Shpirt (Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis of RAS, RF, Moscow), S.A. Punanova (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Oils and combustible shales as a raw for potentially trace elements producing

Keywords: classification, trace elements, shales, oils, clarks, ashes, coke

Using data containing in the literature published in Russian and other countries there are presented trace elements (TE) with medium and increased contents in oils, combustible and black shales along with their medium contents in coals. Enrichment degrees with TE of these caustobiolytes are calculated. It is proposed in the literature to name TE typomorphic, if its concentration in a caustobiolyte is statistically higher than its clark in shales or sediments. With account of possible analytical mistakes TE may be called typomorphic if their medium concentration (on ash basis) are higher than those in shales or sediments in 1,4 times. Calculations of the authors have shown that these caustobiolytes may have the same typomorphic TE, but some TE are typomorphic only for one type of caustobiolytes for example for oils (on their ash basis) Co, As, Zn, Cs, Ag, Ni, Au, V, Se, Mo, Hg, Cu and (V, Ni, Co, Cu, Ga, probably Cr, Rb) correspondingly. The knowledges of typomorphic elements are the important factor for understanding the geochemistry of oils, combustible or black shales and coals especially on the consistency of TE accumulation in them. Oils have maximal number of typomorphic elements (Co, As, Zn, Cs, Ag, Ni, Au, V, Se, Mo, Hg, Cu).

Degrees of enrichment values for one type of caustobiolytes are differed by many times in different deposits and even in different layers or its sections of one deposit. Caustobiolytes having TE enrichment values in ≥ 10 times more than clarks are named metalliferous on corresponding TE. In predominant cases, economically valuable process of TE producing for example from oils has to be realized from by-products of their traditional processing of their organic substances. According to experimental data, TE concentrations in these by-products may be higher or compatible with those in traditional raw used industrially for their producing.

The classification system is worked out based on parameters included initial TE concentrations and their distributions while oils, combustible or black shales processing. Using the proposed letter-number or number codes for TE of oils and combustible or black shales one can select method of processing to produce by-products as potentially valuable TE concentrates for their industrial processing on their saleable products.


1. Babaev F.R., Punanova S.A., Geokhimicheskie aspekty mikroelementnogo sostava neftey (Geochemical aspects of oil trace element composition), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2014, 181 p.

2. Khadzhiev S.N., Shpirt M.Ya., Mikroelementy v neftyakh i produktakh ikh pererabotki (Trace elements in the oils and products of their processing), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2012, 222 p.

3. Shpirt M.Ya., Punanova S.A., Mikroelementy kaustobiolitov. Problemy genezisa i promyshlennogo ispol'zovaniya (Trace elements in caustobioliths. Problems of their genesis and industrial use), Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbruchen, 2012, 368 p.

4. Shpirt M.Ya., Rashevskiy V.V., Mikroelementy goryuchikh iskopaemykh (Trace elements of fossil fuels), Moscow: Kuchkovo pole Publ., 2010, 384 . 

5. Yakutseni S.P., Rasprostranennost' uglevodorodov, obogashchennykh tyazhelymi elementami-primesyami. Otsenka ekologicheskikh riskov (The prevalence of hydrocarbons enriched with heavy element-impurities. Environmental risk assessment), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2005, 372 p.

6. Ketris M.P., Yudovich Ya.E., Estimations of slarkes for carbonaceous biolithes: world averages for trace element contents in black shales and coals, International Journal of Coal Geology, 2009, V. 78(1), pp. 135-148.

7. Mukhametshin R.Z., Punanova S.A., Non-traditional sources of hydrocarbon raw material: geochemical features and aspects of development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 3, pp. 2832.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-58-62

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B.A. Bilashev, K.A. Ikhsanov, G.E. Kalesheva (West Kazakhstan Innovation and Technology University the Republic of Kazakhstan, Uralsk)
The technology of producing of drilling fluids based on various clays

Keywords: drilling mud, polymer, polyacrylamide, water loss, salt resistance, clay

The success of drilling operations largely depends on selected methods of drilling fluids chemical treatment. The use of drilling mud that meets the properties of geological and technical conditions of drilling can lead to increase of the service life of equipment, save costly chemicals, mud and mud weighting material.

Acrylic co-polymers with carboxy groups are known as a polyanionic filtrate reducers. They are characterized by temperature stability, but salt stability depends on cations type. In presence of monovalent cations these co-polymers are stable. If cations are polyvalent acrylic co-polymers will easily loss there qualities.

The article discusses the water-based drilling fluid containing clays of different mineralogical composition and nonionic polymer additive. As a polymeric additive in the solution we used co-polymers of N-methylolacrylamide. The ratio of components was following (weight %): clay 10, co-polymer of N -methylolacrylamide - 1-4, water - the rest. Co-polymers of N-methylolacrylamide are colorless powder with a molecular weight of from 3.5104 to 4106. The content of methylalanine groups is from 100 to 50 molecule %. Polymers are not volatile, non-hazardous, non-flammable, non-toxic, cold-resistant and readily soluble in water.

The use of nonionic co-polymers of N methylolacrylamide and acrylamide as an additive to thin clay water-based drilling fluids are filtrate reducers. They reduce wall building coefficient and stabilize the drilling mud in the presence of salts including polyvalent metal ions


1. Ryabchenko V.P., Upravlenie svoystvom burovykh rastvorov (Management of drilling fluid properties), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1990, 323 p.

2. Darley H.C.H., Gray G.R., Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids, Houston, TX: Gulf Professional Publishing, 1988, 643 p.

3. Bilashev B.A., Problemy proizvodstva khimicheskikh reagentov (Problems of chemical reagents production), Proceedings of the 58th Scientific conference of students, graduate students and young scientists, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2007, pp. 207208.

4. Shvetsov O.K., Alanchev V.A., Zotov E.V., Termopas-34 a new universal controller of drilling muds filtration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1997, no. 5, pp. 1013.

5. Koshelev V.N., Vakhrushev L.P., Belenko E.V., Polymer-disperse synergetic effects and new drilling fluids system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2001, no. 4, pp. 2223.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-64-66

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A.N. Sitnikov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Optimal multiple-fractured horizontal well pattern for depletion drive reservoirs

Keywords: well pattern optimization, horizontal wells with multiple hydraulic fractures, depletion drive

The advent of multiple hydraulic fracturing technologies in horizontal wells has significantly increased the profitability of oil and gas fields development and is one of the reasons for the continued growth of multiple fracturing technologies in horizontal wells in newly drilled and completed wells. Moreover, ultra-low permeability reservoirs predominantly are developed by depletion drives mechanism using regular horizontal well systems with multiple hydraulic fractures, and hence, the question of multiple hydraulic fracture optimizations becomes crucial. Many research papers are aimed at finding the optimal number of fractures on a horizontally completed well, but less attention is given to the process of well pattern optimal parameters determination.

This research work is aimed at optimization of horizontal well pattern with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures of finite and infinite conductivities. The objective of this paper is to find optimal values of dimensionless parameters, which will yield the most effective development system and production on depletion drive. The efficiency criterion is based on maximizing the dimensionless productivity index (Jd) in pseudo-steady state flow to the well. This well pattern optimization problem was solved on the basis of a previously proposed semi-analytical model, in which the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) was used. The novelty of this work presents dimensionless correlation, convenient for engineering calculations of the optimal parameters for multiple-fractured horizontal well pattern.

Verification of the correctness of the proposed semi-analytical method and the correlation dependences were carried out using a commercial hydrodynamic simulator. The comparison of results of the hydrodynamic simulator and that of the proposed semi-analytical method showed that the relative deviation of the calculated values from the obtained correction dependence didnt exceed 3 percent.

The characteristics of the best development system, determined based on economic optimization were also well described and estimated by the proposed correlations. Evidence to these is presented in the last part of this work.


1. Saputelli L., Lopez C., Chacon A., Soliman M., Design optimization of horizontal wells with multiple hydraulic fractures in the Bakken Shale, SPE 167770-MS, 2014.

2. Meyer B.R., Bazan L.W., Jacot R.H., Lattibeaudiere M.G., Optimization of multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in horizontal wellbores, SPE 131732-MS, 2010. 

3. Lolon E., Cipolla C., Weijers L. et al., Evaluating horizontal well placement and hydraulic fracture spacing, SPE 124905-MS,  2009. 

4. Supronowicz B.R., Butler R.M., The choice of pattern size and shape for rectangular arrays of horizontal wells, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 1992, V. 44, June, pp. 3944.

5. Supronowicz R., Butler R.M., The productivity and optimum pattern shape for horizontal wellsarranged in staggered rectangular arrays, Journal of Canadian petroleum technology, 1992, V. 31, no. 6, pp. 41-46.

6. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, Orsa Press, Alvin, Texas, 2002, 262 p.

7. Sabaev V.V., Wolcott D.S., Mach J.M. et al., Vertically fractured well performance in rectangular drainage area, SPE 101048-RU, 2006. 

8. Cinco-Ley H., Ramey H. Jr., Samaniego F., Rodriguez F., Behavior of wells with low-conductivity vertical fractures, SPE 16776-MS, 1987.

9. Raghavan R., Chen C.C., Agarwal B., An analysis of horizontal wells intercepted by multiple fractures, HWC-94-39 PETSOC Conference Paper, 1994.

10. Lee Sheng-Tai, Brockenbrough J., A new analitical solution for finite conductivit vertical fractures with real time and Laplace space parameter estimation, SPE 12013-MS, 1986.

11. Brown M.L., Ozkan E., Raghavan R.S., Kazemi H., Practical solutions for pressure transient responses of fractured horizontal wells in unconventional reservoirs, SPE 125043-MS, 2009.

12. Meyer B.R., Jacot R.H., Pseudosteady-state analysis of finite conductivity vertical fractures, SPE 95941-MS, 2005.

13. Sitnikov A.N., Pustovskikh A.A., A Roshchektaev.P., Andzhukaev Ts.V., Amethod to determine optimal switching time to injection mode for field development system(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 3, pp. 8487.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-68-71

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I.S. Putilov, N.N. Barkovskij, O.I. Yakimov, T.V. Chabina (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), N.A. Cherepanova (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF,Tyumen)
Integrated approach to laboratory studies of chemical agents for waterflood sweep efficiency control technology

Keywords: core, flow-decline composition, gelling ability, destruction, residual resistance factor

The efficiency of enhanced oil recovery technology implementing in the wells directly depends on the selection of reagents in laboratory conditions for specific geological and physical conditions of the development objects. The authors consider the growth in the volume of innovative technologies and the need to implement the strategic objectives to increase the recovery factor. There is a need for a method to test each type of technology.

This article describes an integrated approach to laboratory study researches chemical reagents (gelling polymer systems, emulsion, sediment-and thermotropic compositions) used as an agent in the works for leveling of injectivity profile of injection wells for the purpose of regulation technology water flood recovery. The order of carrying out research in the "free volume" including the study of physical and chemical properties of the compounds and technological characteristics injected compositions. And methods of making filtration tests on of real kern material taking into account the mode of operation of the test thermobaric formation. These studies include the study of all the necessary parameters that characterize the effectiveness of the reagents.

The results obtained during the research on the proposed algorithm can be used in field conditions during the implementation of technology in injection wells studied objects.


1. Barkovskiy N.N., Integrated approach to laboratory studies of polymer systems used in the water shut-off technologies (In  Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2016, no. 3, pp. 4146.

2. Cherepanova N.A., Kladova A.V., Assessment of structural-mechanical properties of the gel-like systems (In Russ.) Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2016, no. 11, pp. 8487.

3. Mikhaylov N.N., Gurbatova I.P., Scale effect at laboratory determination of permeability and porosity properties of complex structured carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2011, no. 4, pp. 3236.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-72-75

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622.276.43 5
K.O. Alekseeva, V.A. Baikov, A.V. Kolonskikh (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), V.V. Vodopianov (Ufa State Aviation Technical University, RF, Ufa)
Enhanced oil recovery in carbonate fractured reservoirs by means of the multiple degassing mechanism

Keywords: cyclic water flooding, fractured reservoir, multiple degassing, hydrodynamic simulation

The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by a great deal of carbonate reservoirs among the world oil reserves and the low efficiency of existing widespread reservoir engineering as applied to these reservoirs (e.g., flooding). There is therefore a need for creation of new and improvement of existing oil production technologies, taking into account the specificity of these reservoirs and permitting to increase the oil recovery factor.

The paper presents a technology of cyclic water flooding for fractured reservoir to increase the oil recovery factor. This technology is based on the mechanism of multiple oil degassing and consists in the multiple reservoir pressure passing through the bubble point pressure, which permits to enhance the oil recovery factor by means of multiple dissolved gas work.

In previous studies of the efficacy of single or cyclic fractured reservoir stimulation purposely oil-in-place degassing the detailed oil displacement simulation has not been conducted and only qualitative assessments of oil recovery factor, which allow to conclude about the appropriateness of proposed enhanced recovery methods, has been conducted. In this work, the leading method in the study of the problem is the method of hydrodynamic simulation. Using oil-wet fractured reservoir models the existing oil recovery methods, based on the oil degassing mechanism, has been compared. The cyclic recovery drive, proposed in this work, was the most effective in terms of enhanced oil recovery.

The estimation of the cyclic oil displacement parameters, which allow to enhance the oil recovery factor, has been conducted. One of these parameters is the minimum bottom-hole pressure in the displacement cycles. The simulation results showed that an optimal value of the minimum bottom-hole pressure in the displacement cycles, at which oil recovery factor becomes maximum, exist and it depends on the critical water saturation of the reservoir.

An optimized version of the cyclic recovery drive with a variable minimum bottom-hole pressure in the displacement cycles, which allows to get an additional increase of oil recovery factor, is proposed by authors.

Article submissions may be useful in designing of technological processes for fractured reservoir production using described technology of cyclic reservoir stimulation based on mechanism of the multiple oil degassing.


1. Sheng J.J., Enhanced oil recovery field case studies, Elsevier, 2013, 712 p.

2. Chernitskiy A.V., Geologicheskoe modelirovanie neftyanykh zalezhey massivnogo tipa v karbonatnykh treshchinovatykh kollektorakh (Geological modeling of oil deposits of massive type in carbonate fractured reservoirs), Moscow: Publ. of RMNTK Nefteotdacha, 2002, 254 p.

3. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1982.

4. Donaldson E.C., Alam W., Wettability, Gulf Publishing Company, 2008, 360 p.

5. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 308 p.

6. Krylov A.P. et al., Proektirovanie razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Printsipy i metody (Designing oil fields development. Principles and methods), Moscow: Publ. of Gostoptekhizdat, 1962.

7. Khristianovich S.A., Kovalenko Yu.F., On enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.) Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1988, no. 10, pp. 2528.

8. Pirson S.J., Oil reservoir engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York City, 1958.

9. Stasenkov V.V., Salazhev V.M., Veremko N.A. et al., Estimation of efficiency of displacement of degassed oil by water (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1995, no. 12, pp. 2528.

10. Vakhitov G.G. et al., Razrabotka mestorozhdeniy pri zaboynom davlenii nizhe davleniya nasyshcheniya (Development of deposits when bottomhole pressure below saturation pressure), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, pp. 205212.

11. Certificate of authorship no. 947399 SSSR, Method for developing oil and gas deposits, Authors: Klyarovskiy G.V., Parakhin B.G. 12. Patent no. 2114986 RF, Method for development of oil deposit, Inventors: Salazhev V.M., Lisovskiy N.N., Stasenkov V.V. et al. 

13. Brilliant L.S., Evdoshchuk P.A., Plitkina Yu.A. et al., Effective brownfield development by the means of oil resaturation with evolved gas in situ (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 5459.

14. Buleyko V.M., Zakonomernosti fazovykh prevrashcheniy uglevodorodnykh smesey v neftegazonosnykh plastakh  razrabatyvaemykh mestorozhdeniy (po eksperimental'nym dannym) (Regularities of phase transformations of hydrocarbon mixtures in oil and gas bearing formations of the developed deposits (according to experimental data)): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2005.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-76-79

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V.V. Mukhametshin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
The need for creation of a unified comprehensive method of geological and field analysis and integration of data on effective influence on the bottom-hole formation zone

Keywords: impact on bottom-hole formation zone, conditions and parameters of impact, performance indicators, geological analysis and data integration

We proposed and implemented a method of comprehensive geological-field analysis and integration of data on the effectiveness of various types of impact on the bottom-hole formation zone. The method is based on the use of: reasonable sufficiency of information on the process for solving technology problems of selection, well, conditions and impact parameters; the list of uniform and identical information available to subsoil users; the set of performance criteria that reflect different aspects of the impact process. The method makes it possible to objectively and comprehensively compare the results of different methods of influence on the bottom-hole formation zone. It allows to create the basis for an exposure technology objective selection in a variety of geological and field conditions. Besides one can choose a technology by the performance indicators, which can satisfy the needs of enterprises in a specific situation, taking into account market realities, climatic conditions, geopolitical situation and other both external and internal factors.

In terms of oil deposits with hard to recover reserves in Western Siberia, the analysis and generalization of the bottom hole zone for influence results were made using the proposed method. The received results allow managers to make correct decisions to improve the efficiency of the impact both on the analyzed fields, and similar to them for their geological and commercial response


1. Ibragimov N.G., Musabirov M.Kh., Yartiev A.F., Tatneft''s experience in commercialization of import-substituting well stimulation technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 8689.

2. Mukhametshin V.V., Andreev V.E., Dubinsky G.S. et al., The usage of principles of system geological-technological forecasting in the justification of impact on the reservoir methods, SOCAR Proceedings, 2016, no. 3, pp. 4651.

3. Muslimov R.Kh., Sovremennye metody povysheniya nefteizvlecheniya: proektirovanie, optimizatsiya i otsenka effektivnosti (Modern methods of enhanced oil recovery: the design, optimization and assessment of efficiency), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2005, 688 p.

4. Andreev A.V., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Kotenev Yu.A., Deposit productivity forecast in carbonate reservoirs with hard recoverable reserves, SOCAR Proceedings, 2016, no. 3, pp. 4045.

5. Gomori K.A.R., Karoussl O., Hamouda A.A., Mechanistic study of interaction between water and corbanate rocks for enhancing oil recovery, SPE 99628, 2006.

6. Mukhametshin V.V., Estimation of well potential productivity according to field-geological and geophysical data (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo = Oil and Gas Business, 2016, V. 14, no. 2, pp. 6164.

7. Lungwitz B. et al., Diversion and cleanup studies of viscoelastic surfactantbased self-diverting acid, SPE 86504, 2007.

8. Batalov D.A., Mukhametshin V.V., Andreev V.E.,Comparative analysis of the predictive efficiency of sediment-gel-forming oil recovery improvement technologies in fields of LLC Lukoil - Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, no. V. 14, no. 3, pp. 4046.

9. Mullagalin I.Z., Strizhnev V.A., Khamitov A.T. et al., Approaches to solving the efficiency enhancement problems while remedial cementing (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2016, no. 12, pp. 3137.

10. Zeigman Yu.V., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Khafizov A.R., Kharina S.B., Prospects of application of multi-functional liquids of killing wells in carbonate reservoirs, SOCAR Proceedings, 2016, no. 3, pp. 3339.

11. Zeygman Yu.V., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Khafizov A.R. et al., Peculiarities of selecting well-killng fluids composition for difficult conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 6669.

12. Mukhametshin V.V., Adapting the hydrochloric acid effect on deposits in carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2006, V. 4, no. 1, pp. 127131.

13. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Stepanov G.S., Matematicheskaya teoriya eksperimenta v dobyche nefti i gaza (The mathematical theory of the experiment in the oil and gas production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 228 p.

14. Zemtsov Yu.V., Perspective methods for processing the bottomhole zone of production wells in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2016, no. 7, pp. 2026.

15. Yakupov R.F., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Problem of efficiency of low-productivity carbonate reservoir development on example of Turnaisian stage of Tuymazinskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-80-84

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L.A. Khakimov, A.V. Mysnikov, T.M. Bondarenko, E.Yu. Popov, A.N. Cheremisin (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), I.A. Karpov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Validation of computational model of high-pressure air injection for Bazhenov formations by laboratory modelling results

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, combustion tube, high-pressure air injection, kinetics of chemical reactions, validation of numerical calculations

The high-pressure air injection on the oil-source rock of the Bazhenov formation has a great potential. However, before carrying out a pilot project on the field and making decisions on air injection regimes, it is necessary to build a hydrodynamic model in which a principal place will be occupied by a block of chemical reactions.

This study includes computer simulation of the high-pressure air injection process with using a thermal simulator CMG STARS. The numerical model was adjusted using the results of a combustion tube laboratory experiment. On account of the consolidated model of the combustion tube used in the experiment, a complex numerical 3D model with multiple local refinements of the grid was constructed. That significantly increases the calculation time and imposes a significant limitation on the possibility of carrying out a large number of numerical experiments, which are necessary for the construction of the kinetic model of chemical reactions. Therefore, the geometrical and physical model was simplified by decreasing the dimension of the grid and simplifying the boundary conditions used in the experiment. The before mentioned procedure describes the first level of the optimization workflow that was implemented as a part of this work. Thus, a simplified 1D model of the combustion tube was proposed and tested, which roughly describes the heterogeneity of the consolidated experimental model, but is appropriate for carrying out mass calculations.

As a result of the validation of the model, it was mainly possible to match the temperature profiles in different zones of combustion tube and the total volume of extracted products behind the combustion front. Also, the grid convergence test was performed, which is necessary to identify the dependence of the kinetic parameters on the size of the computational cells. As a result of the simulation, chemical reactions describing the combustion process were confirmed.

The obtained results are necessary for computer simulation of a full-scale oil recovery process by high-pressure air injection in a pilot project at the field.


1. Belgrave J.D.M. et al., A comprehensive approach to in-situ combustion modeling, SPE 20250-PA, 1993.

2. Kokorev V.I., Basic aspects of controlling of thermogas impact on rocks of bazhenovsky series as to geological conditions of Sredne-Nazymsky and Galyanovsky fields (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 6, pp. 2932.

3. Bondarenko T.M. et al., Laboratory modeling of high-pressure air injection in oil fields of Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 3, pp. 34-39.

4. Coats K.H., In-situ combustion model, SPE 8394-PA, 1980, V. 20, pp. 533554. 

5. Kristensen M.R., Impact of phase behavior modeling on in-situ combustion process performance, SPE 113947-MS , 2008.

6. Khakimova L. et al., Optimization workflow for modelling of two phase thermal multicomponent filtration, EAGE, 2016.

7. Shchekoldin K.A., Obosnovanie tekhnologicheskikh rezhimov termogazovogo vozdeystviya na zalezhi bazhenovskoy svity (Substantiation of technological modes of thermogas effect on deposits of the Bazhenov formation): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2016.

8. Strizhnev K.V., Cherevko M.A., Zhukov V.V. et al., Bazhenov formation reservoir rocks of the Palyanovskaya area (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 4547.

9. Chung-Kan Huang, Evaluation of different in-situ recovery strategies by numerical simulation, Proceedings of University of Utah, URL: http://www.ceriminesorg/documents/R10c-Huang.pdf. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-85-89

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D.D. Bek, A.I. Akhtyamova, A.V. Myasnikov, V.P. Stanin (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), Yu.P. Stefanov (A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), D.V. Alchibaev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Optimization of the high-speed injection for horizontal well hydraulic fracturing in terms of Vingayahinskii section of Bazhen formation

Keywords: unconventional reservoir, elasto-plastic model, stress state, strain, hydraulic fractures, Bazhenov formation

The results of optimization of high-speed pumping during hydraulic fracturing (HF) fr om horizontal wells in formations of the Bazhenov formation are presented. The authors regarded the influence of two of seven major factors characterizing features of stress-strain and filtration properties of these formations strength characteristics of rocks including influences of a micro-jointing and mineralogical structure; and stratigraphically determined alternation of zones of brittle and ductile failure is considered. Also, the dependence of the solution on the mode of injection and on the initial stress distribution was considered. The elasto-plastic model specified for geomaterials was used. It is initialized by the technique developed on the base of the core tests carried out for one of the wells of the Vyngayakhinskoye field.

Optimization of the modes of injecting was performed on the basis of the concept of the pseudo-stationary condition of pumping realized at the termination of injecting into the well on the fixed volume of a fluid of the hydraulic fracturing and differing from stationary in ignorance of long relaxation dynamic effects of settling of the coordinated stress-strain state in layer and the well. Choosing of criterion function for optimization is not obvious in the conditions of manifestation of plastically caused effects of failure and is discussed in the details.

Optimization was preceded by the creation of a tornado charts for determination of the influence of uncertainty of elastic and strength parameters for the main rocks presented in all formations of a cross section


1. Drucker D.C., Prager W., Soil mechanics and plastic analysis for lim it design, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 1952, no. 2, pp. 157165.

2. Nikolaevskiy V.N., Opredelyayushchie uravneniya plasticheskogo deformirovaniya sypuchey sredy (In Russ.), Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika, 1971, V. 35, no. 6, pp. 10171029.

3. Myasnikov A.V., Stefanov Yu.P., Stenin V.P. et al., A possible solution of multistage hydraulic fracturing design tasks Bazhenov formations (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2016. No. 6, pp. 62-68.

4. Stefanov Yu.P., Chertov M.A., Aidagulov G.R., Myasnikov A.V., Dynamics of inelastic deformation of porous rocks and formation of localized compaction zones studied by numerical modeling, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2011, V. 59, pp. 23232340.

5. Stefanov Y.P., Bek D.D., Akhtyamova A.I., Myasnikov A.V., Modelling of hydraulic fractures propagation in the layered elastoplastic media, SPE 182021-MS, 2016.

6. Wilkins M.L., Computer simulation of dynamic phenomena, Berlin Heidelberg  New York: Springer-Verlag, 1999.

7. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Desroches J., Displacement of yield-stress fluids in a fracture, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2015, V. 76, pp. 4763.

8. Patent no. 9120963 US B2, Delayed water-swelling materials and methods of use, Inventors: Willberg D.M., Nosova K., Bulova M., S James., Sokolov S. 

9. Kohar J.P., Gofoi S., Radial drilling technique for improving recovery from existing   oil fields, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2014, V. 3, pp. 159161.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-90-95

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R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), R.R. Huzin, A.Sh. Miyassarov, D.A. Salikhov (Carbon-Oil LLC, RF, Almetyevsk), V.E. Andreev (Institute of Oil & Gas Technologies and New Materials of the Republic of Bashkortostan, RF, Ufa), I.A. Galikeev (SPC Gorizont LLC, RF, Izhevsk)
The experience of heavy oil deposits development using multilateral wells with simultaneous separate operation with two elevators

Keywords: drilling, carbonate reservoirs, horizontal wells, multi-branched horizontal wells, dual completion of multilateral wells with two elevators, dynamics of various constructions wells exploitation parameters, development efficiency

The results of drilling and exploitation of heavy oil deposits, complexly built carbonate reservoirs of the bashkirian stage wells of various constructions are seen in the article. Bashkirian stage, in its turn is characterized by high degree of heterogeneity, low capacitor filter properties, weak hydrodynamic link with a formation, together with interwell zones.

It is the first experience in Tatarstan of drilling and development of multilateral wells of complex architecture with two horizontal shafts and selective operation of each trunk using the technology of simultaneous separate operation with two elevators. Only domestic equipment (together with whipstock) is used during the process of construction, well completion and operation.

Comparative characteristics of well performance are presented in dynamics. Accumulated oil production during the examined period of operation depending on a construction, show the efficiency of using horizontal technologies in comparison with a traditional ways of drilling out. Average results of different constructions well pressure recovery curves interpretations are given. Taking into consideration the rate of fall in actual production rates of drilled inclined and horizontal wells, an increase in the selection rate from initial to current recoverable reserves is revealed.

On the basis of actual results of wells operation technical economic parameters of various constructions wells are calculated. The directions of further work development on the areas of horizontal technology deposits, events for increasing the wells operation efficiency are offered. Exploitation of heavy oil deposit by horizontal wells let to shorten the period of oil-field development at the expense of higher selection rates and improve economic indicators of the project


1. Khabibullin I.T., Galikeev I.A., Proektirovanie profiley skvazhin prostranstvennogo tipa (Design of spatial course of hole), Proceedings of Bashkir State Research and Design Institute of Petroleum Industry, 1992, V. 86, pp. 7581.

2. Galikeev I.A., Kustovanie gorizontal'nykh skvazhin (Cluster drilling of horizontal wells), Proceedings of 3rd International  seminar Gorizontal'nye skvazhiny (Horizontal wells), 2930 November 2000, Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Oil and Gas State University, 2000, pp. 2829.

3. Khakimzyanov I.N., Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R. et al., Nauka i praktika primeneniya razvetvlennykh i mnogozaboynykh skvazhin pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The science and practice of using branched and multi-hole wells in the oil fields development), Kazan', 2011, 300 p.

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5. Patent no. 2197593 RF, MPK4 E21V 7/08, Device for multiple drilling-in of producing formations from single parent hole, Inventors: Galikeev I.A., AverinM.G., Abdrakhmanov G.S., Zaynullin A.G., Bayanov V.M., Glukhov S.D. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-96-99

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G.P. Kayukova, D.A. Feoktistov, A.V. Vakhin, (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), I.P. Kosachev, G.V. Romanov, A.N. Mikhailova (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk)
Conversion of heavy oil in carbonic natural environment using catalyst - iron disulfide

Keywords: heavy oil, composition, rheological properties, hydrothermal catalytic transformations, iron disulfide

The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of hydrothermal and catalytic processes on the direction and depth of changes in the supermolecular components of heavy oil in the carbon environment, with the natural ferrous mineraliron disulfide as a catalyst. The number of laboratory experiments showed the peculiarities of changes in the group and structural-group composition of heavy oil Ashalchinskoye field (Republic of Tatarstan) and its rheological characteristics of hydrothermal-catalytic processes. The experiments was taken at temperature of 250, 300 and 350 C in a carbon dioxide environment using pyrite with chemical composition FeS2 as a natural mineral catalyst. It is shown that with increasing temperature up to 350 C almost twice increased content of newly formed hydrocarbon fractions. It is owing to decrease the content of tar and asphaltenes, causing a decrease in the viscosity of heavy oil in 2-2.5 times in the temperature range 10-60 C. The main difference heavy oil conversion in the presence of catalyst is activation of the flow of degradation reactions at C-C, C-N, C-O, C-S bounds, and in blocking polymerization reactions leading to the formation of coke-like products.

Experiments demonstrated the direction of changes in the composition of heavy oil and its qualitative characteristics in hydrothermal-catalytic processes at temperatures of 250, 300 and 350 C, using the natural mineral pyrite as a catalyst. In the presence of a catalyst compared to the original oil and the test-case products, the increase in temperature has been accompanied by a more intensive formation of saturated hydrocarbons, with a noticeable decrease in aromatic compounds and asphaltenes. The most profound transformations in the group composition of oil occur at a temperature of 350 C. This is reflected in a reduction in the viscosity of heavy oil, as well as in changes in its structural and group characteristics, including asphaltenes. The work shows potential for using hydrothermal-catalytic processes for the upgrading of heavy oil composition


1. Khisamov R.S., Vysokoeffektivnye tekhnologii osvoeniya neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Highly efficient technology of development of oil field), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 638 p.

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4. Sitnov S.A., Petrovnina M.S., Feoktistov D.A. et al., Intensification of thermal steam methods of production of heavy oil using a catalyst based on cobalt (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp.106108.

5. Varfolomeev M.A., Nagrimanov R.N., Samatov A.A. et al., Chemical evaluation and kinetics of Siberian, north regions of Russia and Republic of Tatarstan crude oils, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects , 2016, V 38 (8), pp. 10311038.

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7. Abdrafikova I.M., Kayukova G.P., Petrov S.M. et al., Conversion of extraheavy Ashal'chinskoe oil in hydrothermal catalytic system (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2015, V. 55, no. 2, pp. 110118.

8. Tomina N.N., Pimerzin A.A., Moiseev I.K., Sulfide hydrotreating catalysts of petroleum feedstocks (In Russ.), Rossiyskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal = Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2008, V. LII, no. 4, pp. 4152.

9. ASTM D 412409, Standard test method for separation of asphalt into four fractions. 

10. Trukhina O.S., Sintsov I.A., Experience of carbone dioxide usage for enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.), Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya, 2016, no. 3, pp. 205209.

11. Onishchenko Y.V., Vakhin A.V., Voronina E.V., Nurgaliev D.K., Thermo-catalytic destruction of kerogen in the presence of cobalt oxide nanoparticles and mineral pyrite, SPE 181915-MS, 2016.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-100-102

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I.V. Butsaev, N.S. Abramova, O.V. Zlobina (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara), S.V. Telyshev, R.M. Tuchvatullin (Slavneft-Krasnoyarskneftegas LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk)
Optimization studies at conceptual design stage by means of criterion evaluation: Kuyumbinskoye oil field case study

Keywords: optimization studies, conceptual design, oil field development, criterion evaluation

In recent years under conditions of turbulent environment there is raised a question of investment efficiency in major oil and gas projects. The early stages of project implementation have a high impact of management decisions on the future value of the project (asset) at low initial costs and are associated with high uncertainty of the input parameters and the lack of tools for decision-making.

Until recently, the only generally accepted method of alternative selection at designing of oil field development was technical and economic assessment, which involves cost comparison of each alternative. Estimation precision at the stage "Selection" is 30%. Frequently the difference between alternatives lies within the limits of estimation precision. Consequently, selecting the alternative with potentially the lowest cost, the total value of the project can be significantly reduced. Therefore, there is a need for additional assessment tools, the objectivity of which would be more tangible.

The method of alternative selection of technological systems in oil field development by means of criterion evaluation was implemented in Giprovostokneft when performing conceptual design of Kuyumbinskoye oil field. Using the proposed method helped to optimize the concept of field development, in which the best options for each technological system were adjusted with each other, providing consistent solutions.

Described methodology is introduced in Giprovostokneft in feasibility studies, conceptual designs and master plans, but improvement work on it continues. This will take into account not only the impact of each factor on the system, but also their mutual influence. In General, the application of the criterion evaluation method forms new approach to realization of investment opportunities and significantly increases the economic efficiency of investment projects


1. Vykhodtsev A.V., Kaverin A.A., Conceptual design and long-term planning of oil and gas fields development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 4, pp. 4245.

2. Gizbrekht D., Yatsenko V., Dubovitskaya E., Tkachenko M., Estimating costs for the construction of oil and gas facilities: foreign and Russian experience (In Russ.), Neft' i kapital, 2014, no. 5, pp. 23.

3. Ismagilov R.R., Kudryavtsev I.A., Maksimov Yu.V., Phases of conceptual design for field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12. S. 6670.

4. Sugaipov D.A., Sandler I.L., Development of new oil and gas fields in Gazprom Neft JSC using the major projects management system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 69.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-103-107

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A.S. Martianov, V.P. Frayshteter (Giprotyumenneftegaz PJSC, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen), V.V. Sushkov (Nizhnevartovsk State University, RF, Nizhnevartovsk)
Design of ride-through solutions for electric submersible pump with adjustable speed drive

Keywords: electric power quality, short-term power failure, energy storage, flywheel, supercapacitors, ESP

Failure of induction motors, providing a complex continuous process, can lead to significant economic and environmental damage. Induction motors during voltage dips and interruptions can go into an unstable mode, which will cause a voltage collapse - destabilization of the electric load. In the study of the dynamic stability of asynchronous electric motors with adjustable frequency drives, we must take into account their special features.

The aim of this paper is to develop technical solutions to create a fault-tolerant power system of the motor load as an example of electric submersible pumps unit.

Ride-through solutions, we suggest, is to upgrade existing control stations (adjustable frequency drives) with systems of modern energy storage devices and their charge system, which can increase the stability of asynchronous motors with adjustable speed drives, including ESP unit, given their features. Other advantage of this ride-through solution is using of existing equipment. The paper describes the flywheel and capacitive (based on supercapacitors), energy storage, showing their possible inclusion in the electricity network of oil fields and ESP, and offer accommodation options in the area of electrical equipment.


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3. Egorov A.V., Melik-Shakhnazarova I.A., Surzhikov A.V., Opyt povysheniya nadezhnosti elektrosnabzheniya vysokotekhnologichnogo proizvodstva (Experience in improving the reliability of power supply for high-tech production), Proceeding of Gubkin State Oil and Gas University, ina, 2012, no. 3 (268), pp. 130140.

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-109-112

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R.N. Bakhtizin, K.R. Urazakov, B.M. Latypov, B.H. Ishmukhametov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.Yu. Narbutovskikh (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
The influence of regular microrelief forms on fluid leakage through plunger pair of sucker rod pump

Keywords: sucker rod pump, plunger pair, regular microrelief, pump capacity, gap leakage, groove, oil production
The article considers the influence of the regular microrelief on the leakage of fluid pumped through the plunger pair of sucker rod pump. To evaluate the effect of different types of regular microrelief on the amount of fluid leakage through the plunger pair and selecting the optimal type, in which liquid leakage is minimized, the following tasks were set: assessment of the influence of micro-relief plunger assembly by the amount of leakage; determining the optimal geometric parameters of the regular microrelief profile. The main factors influencing the leakage of liquid through the clearance of the plunger pair of the sucker rod pump during its operation are considered. Based on a comparative analysis of different shapes of grooves, a groove with a cross section in the form of a right triangle was examined. A simulation using computational fluid dynamics tools for fluid flow through the gap of the plunger pair with the groove, and the groove was in the form of a right triangle. Practical recommendations on the choice of geometrical parameters of grooves in which there is maximum hydraulic resistance for the flow of fluid in the gap plunger pair of sucker rod pump have been developed. The application of a regular microrelief on the plunger of a sucker rod pump in the form of grooves with a cross-section of a rectangular triangle provides an increase in the pressure drop of the fluid flow in the plunger gap, which allows to reduce the leakage of liquid. Computational simulation of fluid flow in the gap of the plunger pair has established the optimal geometric parameters of the grooves with the cross-section of a right-angled triangle, at which the maximum hydraulic resistance occurs


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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-4-113-116

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G.I. Dusmetova, A.V. Sharifullin, E.V. Kharitonov (Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan) V.N. Sharifullin (Kazan State Power Engineering University, RF, Kazan)
Processing and test of turbulent viscosity reducing additive with nanocomponents

Keywords: oil, flow properties, viscosity reducing, turbulent viscosity reducing additives (or anti-turbulent additives), hydraulic resistance, diesel fuel fraction, Reynolds number

Modern requirements for turbulent viscosity reducing additives involve certain flexibility: a combination of viscous and anti-turbulent properties while maintaining the stability to various types of destruction. Currently in use additives do not fully comply with these requirements.

We developed a composition (additive) consisting of nanoparticles (20-30 nm), low molecular weight polymer and surface-active substance Reapon-4V. The action of adsorption forces of leads to formation of new linear structure of pseudo-polymer with a higher molecular weight than the starting polymer. The higher molecular weight of the polymer is the greater flow resistance decreases. On the other hand the additive having a very high molecular weight is unstable to mechanical degradation. We have developed a composition more resistant to mechanical degradation due to the effect of the periodic destruction and restoration of the structure. Initially, the polymer is adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface, forming a new linear structure of high molecular weight, and thereby a reduction in flow turbulence and as a result, reducing hydrodynamic drag. Passing through the pseudo-polymer pump, breaks down. Then, in a stream of moving fluid again, polymer adsorption occurs again on the surface of nanocomponents and the formation of "macromolecules". The presence of surface-active substance, together with the polymer allows this dispersed system be in the steady aggregation state, without allowing nanocomponents particles to coagulate in the solution. It was established that the synthesized additive with nanocomponents we have, under turbulent flow stream acts as an anti-turbulent and as a viscous. The effect of additives, due to decreased viscosity of the medium, appears greater at temperatures close to 0 C and in small pumping velocities.

Additive comprising of nanocomponents is effective "viscose" properties at low shear rates, thus reducing the energy consumption at the initial stage of movement of oil (in laminar and transitional mode). The action of nanocomponents in reducing viscosity decreases with increasing turbulence flow.

Hydrodynamic efficiency of developed additives with nanocomponents is higher than that of industrial anti-turbulent M-FLOWTREAT additives for a diesel fraction. It can be assumed that on oils (a more viscose medium) this difference will be more


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