The article deals with the issues of the competitive market creation of oil field service, engineering and construction services, including the provision of the uniform transparent pricing policy for these services and favorable conditions for development of the Russian independent service companies. The need of the domestic competitive market creation of oil service for the purpose to decrease on imports of the «upstream» segment is proved. The assessment of the degree of dependence on the foreign equipment and technologies is given, including in the implementation of various types projects of oil and gas fields. Illustrating data are provided too. The authors characterize the influence of the foreign oil field services companies’ branches on functioning of Russian oil industry from energy and economic security of the country positions. Parallel import issues are obtained, assessment of domestic oil service development by profile state governments is given, and issues in the field of quality of the provided services in the oil production segment are covered. Along with the experience of foreign countries, the measures of state support of oil field services in the development of state standards and technical regulations in the field of equipment and technology are given and elimination of imperfections in the normative support of oilfield services, more exactly the definition of legal requirements for oil service contractors. Institutional prerequisites of transformation from expert and raw orientation of domestic economy to scientific and technological are defined.
1. Kraynova E.A., Oil service instead of vertically integrated oil company (In Russ.), Oil&Gas Journal Russia, 2018, no. 8 (128), URL: http://ogjrussia.com/uploads/documents/OGJR_86747647.pdf
2. Krotova M.V., Economic conditions for oil service industry development in modern Russia (In Russ.), Nauchnye trudy: Institut narodnokhozyaystvennogo prognozirovaniya RAN, 2009, V. 7, pp. 177–197.
3. Protokol zasedaniya Obshchestvennogo soveta pri Federal'noy sluzhbe po ekologicheskomu, tekhnologicheskomu i atomnomu nadzoru (A protocol of a meeting of Public Council under the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision), URL: http://www.gosnadzor.ru/public_council/activity/sessions/2018/60.
4. Obzor nefteservisnogo rynka Rossii (Overview of the Russian oilfield services market), Moscow: Publ. of Deloyt i Tush SNG, 2018, 24 p.
5. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., Oil and gas sector-2030: digital, optical and robotic (In Russ.), Neft' Rossii, 2017, no. 3, pp. 4–9.
6. Import substitution: the apotheosis of manual control (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya Vertikal', 2015, no. 7, pp. 3–5.
7. Sergeev I.B., Shkatov M.Yu., Siraev A.M., Oil and gas service companies and their innovative development (In Russ.), Zapiski gornogo instituta, 2011, V. 191, pp. 293-301, URL: http://pmi.spmi.ru/index.php/pmi/article/view/1375/1422
8. Lavushchenko V.P., Garipov A.K., Ponomarenko T.V., Khaertdinova D.Z., Project-based approach to the knowledge managementin vertically integrated oil companies (on the example of Tatneft PJSC) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1, pp. 20–22.
9. Kershenbaum V.Ya., Shmal' G.I., From imports dependence to re-industrialization (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 10–13.
10. Chernova E.G., Razmanova S.V., Structural shifts in oil and gas industry: key factors, indicators, consequences (In Russ.), Vestnik SPbGU. Ekonomika, 2017, no. 4, pp. 621–639.
11. NTTs “Transkor-k” – lider na mezhdunarodnom rynke diagnostiki truboprovodov (Transcor-k is the leader in the international market for pipeline diagnostics), URL: https://www.to-inform.ru/index.php/arkhiv/item/transkor-lider-na-rynke
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13. Romashkina M., Oil and gas service market in Russia: a period of controversy (In Russ.), https://oilcapital.ru/article/general/16-04-2018/rynok-neftegazoservisa-v-rossii-period-protivorechi....
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15. Chernova E. G., Razmanova S.V., Development of competitive environment at the oil market of Russian Federation: Empirical analysis, Economy of Region, 2018, V. 14, no. 2, pp. 547–561.16. Deming W.E., Out of Crisis, The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachussets, London, England, 1986
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In the industry educational programs in higher education institutions (universities), in particular, programs aimed at training managers for oil and gas companies, the basic training of students in the areas of Economics and Management usually is combined with special disciplines, including cycles of technological, economic and managerial disciplines, reflecting the specifics of the fuel and energy complex. At the same time, graduates traditionally experience difficulties with the use of fundamental theoretical knowledge in practice to solve professional problems. In this regard, management training for oil and gas companies should be based on the formation of graduates of industry educational programs of universities on professional competencies that meet the requirements of employers, formulated in professional standards and job descriptions. An example of the formation of graduates of the master's educational program «Fuel and energy business» at the State University of Management (Moscow) competence is “Able to determine the priority directions of development of trading business of energy companies, identify, analyze risks, develop a set of measures to minimize them”. During the formation of this competence, the labor functions, knowledge and skills of two professional standards “Trader of oil and gas market" and "Business analyst” were used. The model of formation of professional competence on the basis of labor functions of professional standards is offered.
The quality of professional training of graduates of industry educational programs of universities and the opportunity for oil and gas companies in the future to form a reserve of managerial personnel from graduates with the necessary competencies, largely depends on the quality of industry professional standards and the active participation of potential employers in the development of educational programs of universities.
1. Federal Law on Education no. 273 of 29 December 2012, URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_140174
2. Zelentsova L.S., Vorontsov V.B., Engineering education as a national priority (In Russ.), Vestnik Universiteta (Gosudarstvennyy universitet upravleniya), 2013, no. 12, pp. 234-238.
3. Afanas'ev V.Ya., Bol'shakova O.I., Baykova O.V., Preparation of managerial cadres for the oil and gas sector on the basis of labor functions of professional standards (In Russ.) Nauchnyy zhurnal Rossiyskogo gazovogo obshchestva, 2018, no. 3–4, pp. 55–57.
4. Professional'nyy standart “Treyder neftegazovogo rynka” (Professional standard “Trader of oil and gas market”), URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_278544/.
5. Professional'nyy standart “Rukovoditel' neftebazy” (Professional standard “Head of tank farm”), URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_176748/.
6. Professional'nyy standart “Rabotnik po formirovaniyu prognozov potrebleniya elektroenergii i moshchnosti” (Professional standard “Worker on the formation of forecasts of the consumption of electricity and power”), URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_302151/
7. Professional'nyy standart “Spetsialist po strategicheskomu i takticheskomu planirovaniyu i organizatsii proizvodstva” (Professional standard “Specialist in strategic and tactical planning and organization of production”), URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_158497/.
8. Professional'nyy standart “Biznes-analitik” (Professional standard “Business analyst”), URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_308997/.
9. Professional'nyy standart “Spetsialist po rabote s investitsionnymi proektami” (Professional standard “Investment projects specialist”), URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_127229/.10. Afanas'ev V.Ya., Ivanov P. E., Khripunova A.S., Manadgement principles of activity of the research organizations (In Russ.), Vestnik Universiteta (Gosudarstvennyy Universitet Upravleniya), 2011, no. 26, pp. 114–120.
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The article covers the geological aspects analysis of Vietnam south offshore, studied by the international petroleum companies from 60s of XX century. Analysed the geological exploration works in 1968-1980. Special focus is given to geological exploration of Vietsovpetro JV, performed at Block 09-1 in 1981-1985. The results of such works are currently applied for the development of White Tiger, Dragon, White Bear, Nam Rong – Doi Moi and White Hare fields, as well as for geological exploration works on the nearest offshore blocks. Analysed and summarized data on development of reservoirs/horizons/members in Block 09-1 profile.
The authors considered geological aspect changes and oil accumulation conditions within Block 09-1 by the example of Vietsovpetro fields based on the accumulated data in geology-geophysics. It is reviewed main stages of exploration and development for the existing fields. Provided data on classification of pay zones/horizons/members and seismic-reflecting horizons, classification of sedimentary basins. The assessment of their distribution and isolation peculiarities in well profiles is provided. The distribution of pay zones/horizons/members by fields is analysed. Consistency is specified to determine it in geo-seismic sections of Vietnam continental shelf. The boundaries of seismic horizons, pay zones/horizons/members and sedimentation conditions are correlated.
The article provides results and efficiency of geological exploration in 2014-2019 and appraisal drilling results. Based on the results of performed works, the authors forecasted the proceeding geological exploration and detailing of geological aspects within the area of existing fields of Block 09-1, as well as prospecting areas of neighbouring blocks of SRV continental shelf, to define non-structural traps and marginal fields.
1. Geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' shel'fovykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy SP “V'etsovpetro” (Geological structure and oil and gas content of the offshore oil fields of JV "Vietsovpetro"): edited by Tu Than Nghia, Veliev M. M., St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2016, 524 p.
2. Gabrielyants G.A., Poroskun V.I., Sorokin Yu.V., Metodika poiskov i razvedki zalezhey nefti i gaza (The method of prospecting and exploration of oil and gas deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 304 p.
3. Borisenko Z.G., Metodika geometrizatsii rezervuarov i zalezhey nefti i gaza (The method of geometrization of reservoirs and oil and gas deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1980, 206 p.
4. Zhdanov M.A., Neftegazopromyslovaya geologiya i podschet zapasov nefti i gaza (Oil and gas field geology and the calculation of oil and gas reserves), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 453 p.
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Overview of the results of oil and gas exploration within the North-Aldan oil-and-gas bearing region is given. It is concluded that negative results were mainly caused by low quality of field preparation for drilling, and orientation of geological prospecting for discovery of oil and gas deposits only in classic anticlinal structures. The article in detail studies prospects of oil and gas content of vast slopes of the Yakutian upland – structure of the first order (ñòðóêòóðû 1 ïîðÿäêà) of the North-Aldan oil and gas area. All available geologic-commercial data, obtained during studying materials on drilling in the vicinity of the Yakutian high are listed. According to lithologic-stratigraphic features of the section, tectonic position and features of prospects of oil and gas content, we conditionally subdivided slopes of the Yakutian high into three areas: western and north-western; northern and north-eastern, eastern, south-eastern and southern. Main geologic elements are identified and geologic events are mapped on each area. Northern and North-eastern slopes of the Yakutian high are the most perspective according to a complex of parameters. Oil and gas deposits confined to zones of wedging of the Permian-Triassic and Jurassic complexes of deposits can be discovered here. On other vast slopes of the high, certain prospects of oil and gas content are associated with ancient Vendian-Cambrian deposits. It is observed that, lack of effective regional impermeable beds is the main problem limiting prospects of oil and gas content of ancient deposits. As a high-priority prospecting works, it is recommended to perform seismic measurements in interfluve of the Lena and Tanda rivers and to drill parametric well near the Khomustakh settlement, Usta-Aladan region, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
1. Sitnikov V.S., Zhernovskiy V.P., On the possible occurrence of oil-and-gas accumulation potential zones in the eastern aldan anteclise (In Russ.), Geologiya i mineral'no-syr'evye resursy Sibiri, 2011, no. 3, pp. 11–18.
2. Gusev G.S., Petrov A.F., Fradkin G.S. et al., Struktura i evolyutsiya zemnoy kory Yakutii (The structure and evolution of the earth's crust of Yakutia), Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1985, 248 p.
3. Gayduk V.V., Vilyuyskaya srednepaleozoyskaya riftovaya sistema (Vilyui Middle Paleozoic rift system), Yakutsk: Publ. of Yakutsk Division of Geophysic Survey of the Siberian Branch of the AS USSR, 1988, 128 p.
4. Mishnin V.M., Grinenko V.S., Coal deposits of Aldan anteclise are the key link of the “protocollector – root source of diamond” system (In Russ.), Nauka i obrazovanie, 2006, no. 4(44), pp. 14–19.
5. Tereshchenko A.N., Raspredelenie bituminoznogo veshchestva v karbonatnykh porodakh doliny r. Amgi (The distribution of the bituminous substance in the carbonate rocks of the Amga River valley), Collected papers “Neftegazonosnost' yuga Vostochnoy Sibiri” (Oil and gas content of the south of Eastern Siberia), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1972, pp. 118–130.
6. Geologiya nefti i gaza Sibirskoy platformy (Geology of oil and gas of the Siberian platform): edited by Kontorovich A.E., Surkov V.S., Trofimuk A.A., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 552 p.
7. Zueva I.N., Kashirtsev V.A., Chalaya O.N., High-carbonaceous rocks of the Kuonamian combustible formation as a source of complex mineral raw materials (In Russ.), Nauka i obrazovanie, 2012, no. 2, pp. 10–15.
8. Alekseev M.I., Batashanova L.V., Slastenov Yu.L., Novye dannye o geologicheskom stroenii Aldanskoy vetvi Priverkhoyanskogo downfold (New data on the geological structure of the Aldan branch of the Pre-Verkhoyansk Trough), Collected papers “Tektoniko-magmaticheskie i metallogenicheskie problemy geologii Yakutii” (Tectonic-magmatic and metallogenic problems of the geology of Yakutia), Yakutsk: Publ. of YaSU, 1987, pp. 48–56.
9. Ivensen G.V., Glinistye mineraly verkhnepaleozoyskikh i mezozoyskikh otlozheniy Predverkhoyanskogo progiba (Clay minerals of the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments of the Pre-Verkhoyansk Trough), Yakutsk: Publ. of Yakutsk Division of Geophysic Survey of the Siberian Branch of the AS USSR, 1991, 120 p.
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11. Sivtsev A.A., Chalaya O.N., Zueva I.N., Hydrocarbon potential of Central Yakutia as energy resource (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, no. 2, pp. 71–84.
12. Kashirtsev V.A., Mikulenko K.I., Safronov A.F. et al., Geokhimiya vend-kembriyskikh nefteproyavleniy Leno-Amginskogo mezhdurech'ya (Sibirskaya platforma) (Geochemistry of the Vendian-Cambrian oil manifestations of the Lena-Amginsky interfluve (Siberian platform)), Collected papers “Aktual'nye voprosy geologii nefti i gaza Sibirskoy platformy” (Topical issues of oil and gas geology of the Siberian platform), Yakutsk: SB of RAS, 2004, pp.156–168.
13. Safronov A.F., Chalaya O.N., Zueva I.N., Aleksandrov A.R., A natural oil seep in the floodplain of the Amga River (Siberian Platform) (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2014, no. 11, pp. 1661–1666.
14. Poelchau H.S., Baker D.R., Hantschel T. et al., Basin simulation and the design of the conceptual basin model, In: Petroleum and Basin Evolution: Insights from Petroleum Geochemistry, Geology and Basin Modeling: edited by Welte D.H., Horsfield B., Baker D.R., Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1997, pp. 3–70.15. Kalinin A.I., Sivtsev A.I., Gas geochemical survey of aromatic hydrocarbons related to the oil and gas prospecting activity on the northern slope of the Yakut Arch (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2017, V. 12, no. 2, pp. 7–11, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/1/23_2017.pdf.
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There is almost universally a demand for data inversion, both to data from borehole seismic and by analogy with land seismic. In this paper we have considered the feasibility of inversion in the main modifications of the borehole seismic. In case of zero-offset VSP, inversion can be performed to predict the geological section below the bottomhole. The solution of the problem requires the highly skilled performer. It is also possible only if there is data from acoustic and density logging in the drilled part and brute information about the structure of the environment under the bottomhole. The offset VSP modification refers to use methods of full-fold data inversion known in the 2D seimic, but the task is not correct due to large incidence angles varying in a wide range and changes in the recording environment, the effect of which on the wave field far exceeds the effect of changes in the properties of formations. The reliability of the results is, at best, limited to a small near-wellbore zone, which has no practical significance. Modifications of walkaway VSP and VSP-3D are multiple observation systems, but, unlike land seismic, the use of inversion of sums partial multiples is impossible, since the vast majority of space cells correspond to a narrow range of stack angles. The use of inversion of full-fold stacks is also incorrect due to changes in the angles of incidence and the complexity of taking into account the changes in the structure of the upper part of the section. Thus, the inversion of offset VSP, walkaway VSP and VSP-3D data is hardly appropriate.
1. Ampilov Yu.P., Barkov A.Yu., Yakovlev I.V. et al., Almost everything about the seismic inversion. Part 1 (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2009, no. 4, pp. 3–16.
2. Zhuzhel' A.S., Lenskiy V.A., Irkabaev D.R., Sharova T.N., The choice of modification of borehole seismic exploration in the study of near wellbore space (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2018, no. 9, pp. 56–61.
3. Tabakov A.A., Rakhimov R.G., Shamsiev M.G., Method of predicting the section below the bottomhole of an exploration well according to VSP using the method of solving inverse dynamic problems (In Russ.), Collected papers “Geofizicheskie issledovaniya na neft' i gaz v Uzbekistane” (Geophysical surveys on oil and gas in Uzbekistan), 1977, V. 27, pp. 98–100.
4. German V.A., Algoritm obrabotki materialov skvazhinnykh nablyudeniy po metodike dinamicheskogo seysmicheskogo zondirovaniya (Algorithm for processing well observations data by the method of dynamic seismic sounding), Collected papers “Novye rezul'taty geofizicheskikh issledovaniy v Belorussii” (New results of geophysical studies in Belarus), 1986, pp. 94–100.
5. Conn P.J. and Nelson C.M., Prediction of formation depths and velocities from VSP data using a linear calibration method, Proceedings of SPWLA 26th Annual Logging Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 17–20 June.
6. Mace D., Lailly P., Solution of the VSP one-dimensional invers problem, Geophysical Prospecting, 1986, V. 34, no. 7, pp. 1002–1021.
7. Lenskiy V.A., Prognozirovanie zon AVPD po dannym VSP (Prediction of abnormally high formation pressure zones according to VSP data), Collected papers “Novye metody, sistemy obrabotki i interpretatsii seysmorazvedochnoy informatsii na EVM” (New methods, systems for computer processing and interpretation of seismic data): edited by Dyadyura V.A., Proceedings of workshop of Assotsiatsiya razrabotchikov i pol'zovateley komp'yuternykh tekhnologiy integrirovannoy obrabotki i interpretatsii geologo-geofizicheskikh dannykh, Tyumen', 7–12 October 1991, Moscow: Publ. of Geoinformmark, 1991, Part 1, pp. 109–114.
8. Silvia M.T., Robinson E.A., Deconvolution of geophysical time series in the exploration for oil and natural gas, Elsevier Science, 1979, 275 p.
9. Aleksandrov B.L., Anomal'no vysokie plastovye davleniya v neftegazonosnykh basseynakh (Abnormally high reservoir pressures in oil and gas basins), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 216 p.
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Insufficient development of formation exposing technology in the Eastern Siberia may be reasoned by the problem of identifying primary and secondary reasons why formation permeability value decreases. Besides, region seems perspective considering presence of oil transport system, developing deposits with significant recoverable reserves and requires more accurate expert control. In attempt to specify the reasons of permeability decrease while formation exposing, it is necessary to observe geological-and-physical characteristics of terrigenous formations of Nepa-Botuoba oil-and-gas bearing region, especially B10 formation which is the most prevalent over estimated region, amongst most common factors. B10 formation is characterized by complex structure and development of lithological, stratigraphic and tectonic factors in various degrees. The post-sedimentation strata transformation processes associated with secondary cementation caused major effect on reservoir spreading. Sandstone salinization was one of them. In addition, several responsible for reservoir characteristics lithotypes are distinguished in the formation. Reservoir characteristics of B10 formation are variable, depending on geological profile and deposit location. High value of formation water mineralization and halite presence could be referred to the main reasons of permeability decrease. Low-mineralized drilling fluids based on sodium chloride solution and their filtrate could quickly penetrate productive layer in high volume, bypassing the largest pore throats, usual for the first lithotype. Negative effect of such fluids on the high-permeable layers is low. However, it could decrease permeability of adjoined productive layers. Such layers are composed with aleurolite and silt sandstone, including sulphate and carbonate formations. Considering interrelation between formation exposing result, various lithological and petrophysical properties and formation fluids saturation, it is necessary to prevent infiltration of drilling mud and its filtrate to reservoir formation at the significant depth while maintaining water-based mud.
1. Fuks B.A., Kazanskiy V.V., Moskalets G.N. et al., Vskrytie produktivnykh plastov i ispytanie skvazhin v usloviyakh zasolonennogo razreza (Sompletion and well testing in conditions of salinization), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 127 p.
2. Nikolaeva L.V., Vasenyova E.G., Buglov E.N., Features of drilling in production horizons at oil fields in Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Vestnik IrGTU, 2012, no. 9, pp. 68–71.
3. Levanov A., Ignat'ev N., Ostyakov E. et al., Challenges in the development of saline terrigenous reservoirs of Eastern Siberia field (In Russ.), SPE 191570-18RPTC-RU, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2118/191570-18RPTC-RU.
4. Strakhov P.N., Koloskov V.N., Bogdanov O.A. et al., Development of hydrocarbon reserves dedicated to the reserve rocks with a complex structure (In Russ.), Vestnik Assotsiatsii burovykh podryadchikov, 2017, no. 3, pp. 39–43.
5. Akhmetzyanov R.R., Zhernakov V.N., Improving the drilling fluid composition for drilling-in terrigenous deposits of Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 80–82.
6. Safronov A.F., Zones of oil and gas accumulation in the north-east of the Nepsko-Botuobinsky anteclise (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2006, no. 7, pp. 18–27.
7. Vorob'ev V.N., Moiseev S.A., Topeshko V.A., Sitnikov V.S., Oil and gas fields in the central part of the Nepsko-Botuobinsky anteclise (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2006, no. 7, pp. 4–17.
8. Vorob'ev V.S., Zhukovskaya E.A., Mukhidinov Sh.V., Consideration of the salinization effect of reservoir rocks layers B10, B13 of the Nepa Formation in order to improve the exploration drilling efficiency at the Ignyalinskiy, Tympuchikanskiy and Vakunayskiy license areas (Eastern Siberia) (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2017, no. 6, pp. 49–57.
9. Polyakov E.E., Pylev E.A., Churikova I.V. et al., Productivity of complex terrigenous reservoirs of the Vendian of the Chayandinskoe field depending on the lithological and petrophysical properties and geological and technical conditions of the opencut of sediments (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2017, no. 12, pp. 22–32.
10. Andreeva O.V., Novoselov D.V., Method of determining the content of abnormal rock-forming minerals (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2011, no. 2, pp. 45–49.
11. Belyakov M.A., Danilko N.K., Kosterina V.A., Sokolov D.I., The experience of studying the riphean-vendian clastic reservoirs of eastern Siberian on core and log data (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2013, no. 4, pp. 22–28.
12. Sokolova O.V., Sostav porodoobrazuyushchego kompleksa vend-nizhnekembriyskikh otlozheniy Sibirskoy platformy po dannym IK-spektrometrii (The composition of the rock-forming complex of the Vendian-Lower Cambrian sediments of the Siberian platform according to IR spectrometry), Proceedings of SurgutNIPIneft', 2006, V. 7, pp. 64–72.
13. Safronov A.F., Chalaya O.N., On the nature of the high salinity of oil from the Talakan field (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2006, no. 7, pp. 35–37.
14. Vozhov V.I., Chernova L.S., Secondary mineral formation in the Vendian-Lower Cambrian sediments of the Nepsko-Botuobinsky anteclise (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1999, no. 11–12, pp. 41–48.
15. Abramov D.A., Abramov A.S., Malyshev A.G., Hydrates formation at modeling of conditions of oil displacement by consecutive fringes of water and gas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 5, pp. 88–90.
16. Betekhtin A.G., Kurs mineralogii (Mineralogy course), Moscow: KDU Publ., 2007, 721 p.
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The article describes an example of an integrated approach to justifying a step-by-step field development strategy – choosing the optimal location of wells, the density of the well spacing, and the completion types. Algorithm for zoning the area of deposit with the disjunction of blocks by filtration-capacitive properties is presented by authors. An example of four actually drilled delineation wells illustrating the work of the described approach is given. The first of the wells confirms the quality of the reservoir in the block, the second – shows the better poroperm properties, rather than in the forecast, the third and fourth wells show the absence of a reservoir in the reservoir. After clarification of the poroperm properties for each of the blocks, multivariate simulations of technical and economic indicators were made on the Gazprom Neft’s streamlines simulator. Taking into account the financial and economic model adopted in the analysis, the existing technological limitations and the experience of contractors performing well construction, the optimal geometry of the development system and the type of completion were chosen.
Tsarichanskoe field with the target low-permeable terrigenous reservoir (average permeability coefficient of about 0,002 mkm2) is shown as an example of the application of the technique formulated in this article. The comparison of the reservoir quality and net pay maps of 2015 and 2017 and the map of current well spacing are given. A comparison of the planned and actual oil production rates for 2017 and 2018 shows the efficiency of the proposed approach. According to the authors, the versatility and flexibility of the technique allow to consider its replication to a wide range of the Company’s assets.
1. Butorin A.V., The study of geological objects achimov formation using a spectral decomposition (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2016, no. 2, pp. 10–18.
2. Murtazin D.G., Spectral decomposition – new opportunities in detailed dynamic interpretation of seismic data (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2016, no. 5, pp. 68–73.3. Khasanov M.M., Mel'chaeva O.Yu., Roshchektaev A.P., Ushmaev O.S., Steady-state flow rate of horizontal wells in a line drive pattern (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 48–51.
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The main focus of this work is on the development of a geological and geomechanical model of a group of gas-condensate fields in Central Asia for solving development problems, primarily hydraulic fracture design. The model is based on the results of determining the geomechanical characteristics of productive layers, as well as the parameters of the in-situ stress field. The dependencies between the static and dynamic parameters were established as a result of the experiments conducted. In particular, the dependences of the static elastic modulus, the uniaxial compressive strength, the Biot parameter on the P-wave velocity are obtained. The dependence of the static Poisson ratio on the X-ray logging parameter, which characterizes its relationship with the shaliness of rocks, is established. The parameters of the Hoek – Brown criterion are given. The results of determining the Biot and Skempton parameters as well as the coefficient of fracture toughness are presented. The main goal of the geological and geomechanical model is to obtain components of the stress tensor of the productive object and the rocks surrounding it, based on the mechanical properties obtained from the results of well logging and 3D seismic data, as well as testing samples. The components are then linked with the hydrodynamic studies of wells and parameters of field development. Subsequently, on the basis of the obtained values of the stress tensor and the values of the mechanical properties of the productive layer, it is possible to optimize the parameters of the hydraulic fracturing, to decide whether to use a hydraulic fracturing with proppant or acid fracturing. In addition, it becomes possible to predict the positions of compacted and decompacted zones and, accordingly, highly productive zones based on the use of established correlations.
1. Ganaeva M.R., Sukhodanova S.S., Khaliulin Ruslan R., Khaliulin Rustam R., Sakhalin offshore oilfield hydraulic fracturing optimization by building a 3D geomechanical model (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 108–111.
2. Hiroki Sone, Mechanical properties of shale gas reservoir rocks and its relation to the in-situ stress variation observed in shale gas reservoirs, PhD thesis, 2012.
3. Shustov D.V., Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Kukhtinskiy A.E., 3D geological geomechanical reservoir modeling for the purposes of oil and gas field development optimization, Proceedings of Conference EUROCK 2018: Geomechanics And Geodynamics Of Rock Masses, 2018, V. 2, pp. 1425–1430.
4. Kovari K. et al., ISRM-suggested methods for determining the strength of rock materials in triaxial compression: Revised version, Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech., 1983, V. 20, pp. 283–290.
5. ASTM D7012 – 14e1. Standard test methods for compressive strength and elastic moduli of intact rock core specimens under varying states of stress and temperatures, 2014.
6. Zoback M., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 449 p.
7. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Shustov D.V. et al., In situ stress in the oil fields of Western Ural (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 64–67.
8. Salimov V.G., Nasybullin A.V., Salimov O.V., Prikladnye zadachi tekhnologii gidravlicheskogo razryva plastov (Applied problems of hydraulic fracturing technology), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2018, 380 p.
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The article considers the problems of the development of oil rims, confined to the Vereiskian layers of the Middle Carbon. The urgency of this issue regarding the fields of Udmurtneft OJSC is shown. The relevance of the matter concerning fields of Udmurtneft OJSC is shown. The considerable reserves of oil concentrated in oil fringes badly give in to development in the traditional ways. Process of development is complicated by emergence of gas and water cones in production wells, penetration of gas from a gas cap in an oil part of a deposit and oil in a gas cap owing to what the mobility of oil considerably decreases and there is a preservation of a part of stocks. The decision on development of oil rims on fields of Udmurtneft OJSC, taking into account mainly low power of productive layers, is a construction of horizontal wells and creation of a water barrier on border of gas-oil contact by means of barrier flooding.
The article shows the evolution of approaches to the implementation of barrier flooding in Udmurtneft OJSC from point transfers for injection of individual wells to the target design of development systems. Examples of successful implementation of barrier water flooding are given; incremental oil production is estimated. Criteria are set that determine the effectiveness of the barrier waterflood in terms of drilling systems development with horizontal wells. Among the main criteria of success are: the early implementation, the work of producing wells in a sparing mode, control over the creation of a barrier both in area and in section. On the basis of the accumulated experience on a number of objects of development, the transformation of the design grid of wells in favor of the development system with the allocation of a number of barrier injection wells.
Barrier flooding coupled with a row system of horizontal wells is shown as an optimal technology for the development of oil rims in the marginal parts of the deposits with an extensive gas cap.
1. Zakirov S.N., Razrabotka gazovykh, gazokondensatnykh i neftegazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy (Development of gas, gas condensate and oil-and-gas condensate fields), Moscow: Struna Publ., 1998, 628 p.
2. Gavura V.E., Isaychev V.V., Kurbanov A.K. et al., Sovremennye metody i sistemy razrabotki gazoneftyanykh zalezhey (Modern methods and systems for the development of gas and oil deposits), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1994, 346 p.
3. Kosachuk G.P., Bilalov F.R., Estimation of oil recovery factor of oil and gas fields with oil rim (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2009, Special Issue, pp. 19–22.
4. Ponomarev A.I., Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki zalezhey uglevodorodov v nizkopronitsaemykh i sloisto-neodnorodnykh kollektorakh (Improving the efficiency of the development of hydrocarbon deposits in low and layered reservoirs), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2007, 236 p.
5. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 308 p.
6. Nasyrov V.A., Nurov S.R., Gotlib O.L., Prospects of low-efficient carbonaceous oil fringes development at Udmurtneft oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 22–24.
7. Pokrepin B.V., Razrabotka neftegazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy (Development of oil and gas condensate fields), Moscow: Struna Publ., 1998, 628 p.
8. Kurbanov A.K., Kats R.M., Sherstnyakov V.F., Kundin A.S., Issledovanie vliyaniya anizotropii na konusoobrazovanie v podgazovykh zalezhakh nefti s podoshvennoy vodoy (Investigation of the effect of anisotropy on the coning in petrol deposits of oil with bottom water), Proceedings of VNII, 1981, V. 75, pp. 63–68.
9. Panfilov M.B., Edinaya kontseptsiya razrabotki slozhnopostroennykh neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Unified concept for the development of complex oil and gas fields), Razrabotka i ekspluatatsiya gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy (Development and operation of gas and gas condensate fields), Moscow: Publ. of IRTs Gazprom, 1994, 96 s.
10. Zakirov I.S., Sovershenstvovanie razrabotki neftegazovykh zalezhey so sloisto-neodnorodnymi kollektorami (Improving the development of oil and gas deposits with stratified heterogeneous reservoirs): thesis of candidate of technical science, 1996.
11. Sidel'nikov K.A., Tsepelev V.P., Integrated cyclic waterflooding management in the oil fields of Udmurtneft OJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 112–116.
12. Topal A.Yu., Usmanov T.S., Zorin A.M. et al., Efficiency of horizontal wells elongation in carbonate reservoirs on the example of deposits "Udmurtneft" OJSC (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2018, no. 10, pp. 60–64.
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Reservoir flooding is one of the basic methods of oil production in low-permeable fields. At the same time, a natural efficiency decrease of flooding method leads to increasing the water injection pressure. One of the side effects there is so-called self-induced fracture growth on injection wells that can be accompanied by a breakthrough of fractures in the producing wells operation zone. The fracture breakthrough in its turn entails the emergence of problems associated with premature products watering. Another negative effect of increased pressure is the growth of fractures in the vertical direction. Breakout of self-induces fractures in vertical direction is a serious problem, especially for the fields on a late stage of development (brownfields) or the fields with several objects of development. There are a number of negative consequences due to the lack of control of fracture growth in vertical. For example, breakout of self-induces fractures into the above-and underlying layers leads to water pumping out of the target layer, in the other words it leads to increasing the volume of ineffective injection in comparison to volume used in hydrodynamic models. The volume of ineffective injection can exceed 50%. The self-induced fracture growth in the vertical direction can also lead to the formation of high pressure zones in the adjacent layers. This, in turn, can lead to problems of drilling wells through such intervals or problems with completion of wells using hydraulic fracturing operations, if the high pressure zone is not taken into account in their design.It is clear that we need to have an essential tool for the fracture geometry prediction to improve the efficiency of water-flooding technology using hydraulic fracture as a completion and to analyze appropriate conditions of water injection. In this paper, we present an approach that allows us to perform a quick estimation of self-induced fracture height. The approach is based on a simplified pseudo 3D cell fracture model with the fracture growth determined by a local criterion at the fracture ends.
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It is known, the oil migrate to the bottom holes due to different types of reservoir energy. Depending on the type of reservoir energy one can single out primary, secondary, tertiary recovery. During the primary recovery stage reservoir drive comes fr om a number of natural mechanisms. These include: natural water displacing oil downward into the well, expansion of the natural gas at the top of the reservoir, expansion of gas initially dissolved in the crude oil, and gravity drainage resulting from the movement of oil within the reservoir from the upper to the lower parts wh ere the wells are located. Secondary recovery is based on the use of reservoir pressure maintenance systems. The reservoir energy in this case is replenished by water injection. Tertiary recovery, or enhanced oil recovery (EOR), methods increase the mobility of the oil in order to increase extraction. There are thermal, gas, chemical (polymers), microbiological methods and their combinations. The most common way to develop oil fields is secondary recovery. The use of waterflooding system allows maintaining reservoir pressure at a necessary level. The use of reservoir pressure maintenance systems requires to solve the problem of rational water injection ratio. This issue needs definition of the target injectivity of injection wells. To date, there are several approaches.
This article presents a method for calculating the target injectivity of injection wells adapted to the conditions of a group of fields of Slavneft-Megionneftegas characterized by equal geological and physical parameters. The authors described the main stages of the development of the methodology, and showed the effectiveness of the implementation of the methodology in the fields.
1. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, New York: John Willey & Sons, 2000, 750 p.
2. Liebowitz H., Razrushenie (Destruction), Part 2. Matematicheskie osnovy teorii razrusheniya (Mathematical foundations of the theory of destruction), Moscow: Mir Publ., 1975, 768 p.
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4. Cherepanov G.P., Mekhanika khrupkogo razrusheniya (The mechanics of brittle fracture), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1974, 640 p.
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The waterflooding method is the most common practice for reservoir pressure maintenance during oil field development. At an early stage, when planning waterflooding activities, it is especially important to possess a reliable data on water-oil displacement. The conventional way of data acquisition based on laboratory studies is associated with difficulties in the restoration of reservoir wettability, and account of alterations in reservoir and injected fluids properties.
Srednebotuobinskoye filed located in the Western Siberia is characterized by significant variability of geological and physical properties. The laboratory studies show that the oil viscosity over the entire section of the reservoir varies fr om 7 to 28 mPa; water viscosity changes from 1 to 4 mPa; relative permeability to water varies from 0.003 to 0.3. The reservoir properties were re-defined both in the laboratory and in the field conditions, while implementing pilot production and well testing during full field development. At the stage of field studies an approach was applied to the analysis of injection wells that compared productivity and injectivity parameters after conversion to injection (injectivity/productivity). Injectivity/productivity ratio in steady state shows the relative mobility of injected water. To analyze the wells performance it is convenient to use the diagnostic plot, wh ere the productivity index is plotted along the X-axis, and the injectivity index is plotted along the Y-axis. The deviation from the mean to the X-axis indicates the possible well damage. The deviation to the Y-axis indicates possible movement of water to different horizons, or well operation in autofrac mode. For Srednebotuobinskoye field the application of injectivity/productivity diagnostic plot helped determine wells with indications of autofrac or water movement to different horizons, as well as wells with reduced injectivity attributed to damaged wells. Additional well tests confirmed the conclusions on hydraulic fracture overpressure in the group of wells with increased value of injectivity/productivity ratio.
The analysis of injectivity and productivity ratios showed that the mean value of injectivity/productivity parameter varies within a narrow range of 0.5 to 0.8. Possible high levels of relative mobility of injected water in the oil-wet reservoir have not been confirmed. Operation of injection wells with low-salinity water is characterized by low relative mobility values, with the stable displacement front to be expected. The improvement of injected water mobility has confirmed the right choice in favor of selecting the base line-drive water flooding system (with the production-to-injection wells ratio being 1/1).
1. Levanov A., Kobyashev A., Chuprov A. et al., Evolution of approaches to oil rims development in terrigenous formations of Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), SPE 187772-RU, 2017.
2. Levanov A.N., Belyanskiy V.Yu., Anur'ev D.A. et al., Concept baseline for the development of a major complex field in Eastern Siberia using flow simulation (In Russ.), SPE 176636-RU, 2015.
3. Ivanov E.N., Akinin D.V., Valeev R.R. et al., Development of reservoir with gas cap and underlying water on Srednebotuobinskoye field (In Russ.), SPE 182055-RU, 2016.
4. Prokop'eva E.G., Kobyashev A.V., Valeev R.R., Experience in production well logging and interpretation for horizontal wells of the Middle Botuobinskoe field (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2017, no. 8, pp. 17–35.
5. Luk'yantseva E.A., Oparin I.A., Kobyashev A.V., Opredelenie metodov vyyavleniya sloya vysokovyazkikh neftey na primere Srednebotuobinskogo neftegazokondensatnogo mestorozhdeniya (Determination of methods for detection of a layer of high-viscosity oils on the example of the Srednebotuobinskoe oil and gas condensate field), Proceedings of conference GeoBaykal’ 2018, EAGE, 2018.
6. Valeev R.R., Kolesnikov D.V., Buddo I.V. et al., An approach to the water shortage problem solution for a reservoir pressure maintenance of oil fields in the eastern Siberia (on the example of Srednebotuobinsky oil and gas-condensate field) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2019, no. 1, pp. 55–67.
7. Grinchenko V.A., Aksenovskaya A.A., Valeev R.R., Savel'ev E.A., Dynamics of intrapermafrost water in thermo-radiation taliks in Srednebotuobinsky oil and gas condensate field development (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2019, no. 1(77), pp. 84–89.
8. Deppe J.C., Injection rates – The effect of mobility ratio, area swept, end pattern, SPE 1472-G, 1961.
9. Borisov G.K., Ishmiyarov E.R., Polyakov M.E. et al., Physical modeling of colmatation processes in the near-well bottom zone of Sredne-Botuobinsky field. Part 2. Simulation of colmatation of a formation porous space by oil components (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 12, pp. 64–66.
10. Sokolov S.V., K voprosu ob optimal'nom sootnoshenii dobyvayushchikh i nagnetatel'nykh skvazhin v protsesse razrabotki (On the optimal ratio of production and injection wells in the development process), Proceedings of TNNC, 2017, V. 3, pp. 145–149.
11. Willhite G.P., Waterflooding, SPE Textbook Series, 1986.
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Geological and technical measures (GTM) - work carried out on wells to regulate the development of fields and maintain target levels of oil production. Through GTM, oil-producing enterprises ensure the fulfillment of project indicators for the development of deposits. As a result of the implementation of GTM, a significant increase in oil production is obtained. The relevance of the work lies in the fact that today there are various methods for analyzing the effectiveness of GTM. The proposed method allows us to more accurately assess the contribution of GTM to the production of a well.
For a comprehensive assessment of the effect of geological and engineering operations, specialists of RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, together with specialists of Slavneft-Megionneftegas, have developed an extended methodology for evaluating the effect of GTM –“Pie”, which is based on a multi-criteria analysis of the arrangement taken. The traditional method is based on the comparison of the entire production between the date of the first GTM and the date of the second GTM in relation to the first GTM. The increase is estimated only as the difference between the launch and stop parameters and does not take into account the rate of decline in production from the previous event. The duration of the effect is limited to the date of the next GTM for additional production (hydraulic fracturing, sidetracking, transitions to other horizons). In the developed methodology of the advanced analysis "Pie", the flow rates are divided into increments from arrangements, taking into account the rate of decline from previous GTM. The actual values of the flow rates for a sliding year are approximated by an exponential dependence. The resulting coefficient is used to forecast well production for the periods of validity of all subsequent GTM. Such differentiation makes it possible to most accurately estimate the share of each GTM in the flow rate of a well with a fall rate for the duration of the effect.
1. Mukhtarullin I.F., Yabirov R.Z., Vladimirov V.V., Prediction of oil production and workover effectiveness estimation on basis of analytical methods (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2010, no. 1(33), pp. 42–43.
2. Akhundov B.B., Kazanlieva A.A., The effectiveness of geological and technical measures in the oil fields of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Akademicheskiy zhurnal Zapadnoy Sibiri, 2017, no. 2.
3. Tolstonogov A.A., Evaluation of geological and engineering activities in oil production (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya. – 2014, no. 11, pp. 150–154.
4. Lavrent'ev M.A., Shabat B.V., Metody teorii funktsiy kompleksnogo peremennogo (Methods of the theory of functions of a complex variable), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 688 p.
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Injection initiated fractures occur into low-permeability reservoirs when ‘closure’ pressure threshold is exceeded. This effect may cause risks of gas, oil, and water shows due to anomalously high reservoir pressure while sidetracking. Thus, while planning sidetracks, problems of analyzing and forecasting risks of overpressured zones due to fracturing initiated by injection have to be solved along with reservoir pressure monitoring. The article presents some field case studies of approbation of Rosneft’s tools for simulating injection initiated fractures. The classification of cases of injected water breakthrough along the fractures is suggested. The description of the injection initiated fracturing simulator and the method for forecasting overpressured zones for a target bed are adduced. The simulator combines hydrodynamical and geomechanical solvers to calculate a fracture’s trajectory and increment. It is noted that additional auxiliary information (results of well testing, field geophysical surveys, drilling history, etc.) should be taken into account and the workflow algorithm for forecasting risks of overpressured zones at sidetrack’s path is suggested. The example for forecasting overpressured zones for a non-target (overlying) bed by means of a specialized corporate software module is also considered. The above-mentioned corporate tools are already usable in order to increase success of sidetracking operations.
1. Mal'tsev V.V., Asmandiyarov R.N., Baykov V.A. et al., Testing of auto hydraulic-fracturing growth of the linear oilfield development system of Priobskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 5, pp. 70–73.
2. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Usmanov T.S., Stepanova Z.Yu., Special well tests to fractured water injection wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 65–75, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Baikov/Baikov_1.pdf
3. Davletbaev A.Ya., Baykov V.A., Ozkan E. et al., Multi-layer steady-state injection test with higher bottomhole pressure than the formation fracturing pressure (In Russ.), SPE 136199-RU, 2010, https://doi.org/10.2118/136199-RU.
4. Davletbaev A.Ya., Baykov V.A., Bikbulatova G.R. et al., Field studies of spontaneous growth of induced fractures in injection wells (In Russ.), SPE 171232-RU, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2118/171232-RU.
5. Makhota N.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Fedorov A.I. et al., Examples of mini-frac test data interpretation in low-permeability reservoir (In Russ.), SPE 171175-RU, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2118/171175-RU.
6. Fedorov A.I., Davletova A.R., Kolonskikh A.V., Toropov K.V., Justification of the necessity to consider the effects of changes in the formation stress state in the low permeability reservoirs development (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2013, no. 2(31), pp. 25–29.
7. Fedorov A.I., Davletova A.R., Reservoir stress state simulator for determining of fracture growth direction (In Russ.), Geofizicheskie issledovaniya = Geophysical research, 2014, V. 15, no. 1, pp. 15–26.
8. Ivashchenko D.S., Sayfullin I.F., Fedorov A.I., Khabirov S.S., Simulation of auto fracturing cracks in zones of drilling lateral horizontal wellbore (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference “Gorizontal'nye skvazhiny i GRP v povyshenii effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy” (Horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing in improving the efficiency of oil field development), Kazan', 2017, pp. 184–186.9. Davletova A.R., Fedorov A.I., Shchutskiy G.A., Self-induced hydraulic fracture growth in vertical plane (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 6., pp. 50-53.
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Heterogeneous porous-fractured-cavernous carbonate oil reservoirs are the most challenging targets for acidizing, because of heavy contrasts in permeability, which might be a few orders of magnitude higher in fractured zones, as compared with oil-saturated porous matrix blocks. Conventional technologies to divert acid do not work in these reservoirs; neither quasi-viscous hydrophobic emulsions nor high-concentration polymer systems are able to plug cavernous-fractured zones, and the injected acid will not divert into the oil-saturated matrix intervals. The efforts were made to develop structure-forming colloidal systems to divert low-viscosity acid systems while selective matrix acidizing of heterogeneous porous-fractured carbonate reservoirs.
Acid diversion process can be improved by polymer fibers that are able to temporarily plug the reservoir zones. As soon as the diverting system enters the fracture, the self-destructing disperse fibers and particles accumulate and aggregate, thus, preventing further moving of the system. The subsequently injected acid is diverted into the target zones. The self-destructing plugging polymer fibers and particles are dissolved within the predetermined time interval, which depends on the formation temperature and the pH value.
The project was aimed to solve two main objectives: selection of structure-forming disperse filling agents with controllable plugging effect and predetermined period of self-destruction; and development of visco-elastic carrier systems to deliver disperse filling agents into fractures.
In the role of structure-forming disperse filling agents we have studied granules and fibers of polylactic acid (lactide). The laboratory research involved the following experiments: selection of structure-forming disperse filling agents and development of visco-elastic carrier systems, analysis of rheological properties under different physical and chemical conditions, evaluation of plugging efficiency of the system; flow studies and flooding tests under simulated selective matrix acidizing conditions; testing of physical and chemical properties of the systems, ways to control destruction, optimal compositions of structure-forming colloidal systems.
The anticipated effect is enhancement of oil production due to improved effectiveness of selective acid treatment of fractured-cavernous carbonate reservoirs of the main oil fields of Tatneft PJSC.
1. Patent no. 2308475 RF, MPK S 09 K 8/74, Composition for acid treatment of critical zone of formation (Variants), Inventor: Musabirov M.Kh.
2. Glushchenko V.N., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya (Oilfield chemistry), Part 4. Kislotnaya obrabotka skvazhin (Acid treatment of wells): edited by Mishchenko I.T., Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2010, 703 p.
3. Musabirov M.Kh., Sokhranenie i uvelichenie produktivnosti neftyanykh plastov (Preserving and increasing the productivity of oil reservoirs), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007, 424 p.
4. Silin M.A. et al., Kislotnye obrabotki plastov i metodiki ispytaniya kislotnykh sostavov (Acid formation treatment and methods for acid compositions testing), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russin State University of Oil and Gas, 2011, 120 p.
5. Khisamov R.S., Musabirov M.Kh., Yartiev A.F., Uvelichenie produktivnosti karbonatnykh kollektorov neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Increase in productivity of carbonate reservoirs of oil fields), Kazan': Ikhlas Publ., 2015, 192 p.
6. Patent no. 9212535 B2 US, Diversion by combining dissolvable and degradable particles and fibers, Inventors: Tippel Ph., Morris E.W.A., Boney C.L., Swaren J., Lassek J., Ariza R., Rees D.E.; Desmond E., Simon D.R., Dardis M.A., Davis D.P.
7. Patent no. 8109335 B2 US, Degradable diverting agents and associated methods, Inventors: Luo H., Fulton D.D.
8. Patent no. 10202828 B2 US, Self-degradable hydraulic diversion systems and methods for making and using same, Inventors: Vigderman L., Saini R.K.
9. Patent no. 7036587 B2 US, Methods of diverting treating fluids in subterranean zones and degradable diverting materials, Inventors: Munoz T. Jr., Todd B.L.
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One of the traditional ways for the enhanced oil recovery is the usage of flow-diverting technologies with polymer solutions as process fluids with a high viscosity. Among such polymers, various copolymers based on the acrylamide and acrylic acid can be called main. The diversity of the chemical composition of polyacrylamides leads to a difference in the technological properties, thus, the correctness of the polymer choice has a significant impact on the effectiveness of specific flow-diverting technologies. Mainly, the quality control of the polyacrylamides is carried out according to known standard methods, but in some cases the standard methods are not suitable to obtaining the reliable information about the studied object. The same time, spectral analysis methods have great analytical capabilities for polymers studying. It was shown that the Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy technique allows distinguishing from each other the anionic hydrolyzed, anionic sulfonated, cationic and non-ionic polyacrylamide. Important feature is that the Attenuated Total Reflection technique allows making analysis of samples in a solid state without complicated sample preparation. It was also shown that a FT-IR study of the residue after evaporation of a liquid makes it possible to identify the type of polyacrylamide in a solution. The other possibility was discovered while study of a numerous polyacrylamide samples. It was shown that combination of a FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy techniques allows identifying the various organic and inorganic impurities in polyacrylamide samples. In particular, some of the samples studied were found to contain the citric acid, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and ammonium sulfate. The presence of impurities in the polyacrylamide samples makes the results of the gravimetric analysis and potentiometric titration unreliable. Therefore, studying of such samples with standard methods will give false results. Thus, the obtained data allow us to recommend the spectroscopic analysis techniques as an addition to the existing quality control methods for chemical reagents.
1. Zakharov V.P., Ismagilov T.A., Telin A.G., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya. Regulirovanie fil'tratsionnykh potokov vodoizoliruyushchimi tekhnologiyami pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Regulation of filtration flows by waterproofing technologies in the development of oil fields), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2011, 261 p.
2. Silin M.A., Magadova L.A., Tolstykh L.I., Davletshina L.F., Khimicheskie reagenty i tekhnologii dlya povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Chemicals and technologies for EOR), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2015, 145 p.
3. Gaillard N., Thomas A., Giovannetti B. et al., Selection of customized polymers to enhance oil recovery for high temperature reservoirs, SPE 177073-MS, 2015, DOI:10.2118/177073-MS.
4. API Recommended Practice 63 (RP 63). Recommended practices for evaluation of polymers used in enhanced oil recovery operations, 1990, June 1, 108 p.
5. Kimstach T.B., Tikhomirov S.V., The use of modern IR Fourier spectrometers Nicolet and consoles for the analysis of polymers (In Russ.), Plasticheskie massy, 2007, no. 3, pp. 34–38.
6. Ezhevskaya T., Bublikov A., IR Fourier transform spectrometers with specific attachments (ATR, IR Microscope and so on). Measurement distinctive features (In Russ.), Analitika, 2012, no. 1(2), pp. 38–45.
7. Silverstein R.M., Webster F.X., Kiemle D.J., Spectrometric identification of organic compounds, New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2005, 502 p.
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The article presents data on the energy consumption of the oil fields of RN-Purneftegas LLC, which are at a late stage of development, due to high watering of wells, a way to limit water inflows is described as a measure aimed at reducing the water content. The basic requirements for the compositions for limiting water inflow developed by the specialists of RN-Purneftegas are also given. The article sets out the criteria for the selection of candidate wells, provides a general plan for limiting water inflow using the Temposcreen-Plus technology, and the parameters of the Temposcreen-Plus gel-forming water-swellable composition developed by Research and Technology Company Atombiotech LLC. The results of laboratory and pilot tests are briefly described, including the rheological and physicochemical properties of the polymer-gel systems (PGS) Temposcreen-Plus. Additional testing of the technology in the laboratory of RN-UfaNIPIneft (now RN-BashNIPIneft) for compliance with specifications, degree of swelling, viscosity, the strength and possibility of destruction of PGS by various destructors are evaluated, filtration testing is conducted on the core. A water shut-off plan has been developed for three producing wells of the Barsukovskoye field. Pilot tests on these wells are described. The article describes the stages of implementation of the Temposcreen-Plus technology and notes that all work was carried out in accordance with the technological plans using standard equipment. The data of well logging is given. As a result of technological procedures, it is shown that after the work has been completed; there is no reinforcement with cement or other anchoring composition. The article presents the results of the pilot tests, it is shown that not previously worked interlayers, including oil saturated, are included in the work. The article also notes the change in the dynamics of fluid flow rate at producing wells before and after the application of the Temposcreen-Plus technology. The article concludes that the work was carried out successfully and recommended for implementation (replication) in the oil fields of RN-Purneftegas.
1. Morikov I.P., Sakhan' A.V., Shcherbakov D.P. et al., Practical experience in water shut-off treatments planning and realization (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 62–64.
2. Strizhnev K.V., Remontno-izolyatsionnye raboty v skvazhinakh: Teoriya i praktika (Repair and insulation works in wells: Theory and Practice), St. Peterburg: Nedra Publ., 2010, 560 p.
3. Dubininskiy G.S., Akchurin Kh.I., Andreev V.E., Kotenev Yu.A., Tekhnologii vodoizolyatsionnykh rabot v terrigennykh kollektorakh (Technologies of waterproofing works in terrigenous collectors), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2011, 178 p.
4. Zemtsov Yu.V., Timchuk A.S., Akinin D.V., Kraynov M.V., Retrospective analysis of methods applied for water inflows limiting, prospects of further development in the Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2014, no. 4, pp. 17–22.
5. Strizhnev V.A., Tyapov O.A., Umetbaev V.G., Obobshchenie opyta provedeniya remontno-izolyatsionnykh rabot na otdel'nykh krupnykh mestorozhdeniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (The generalization of the experience of the repair and insulation works on selected large fields of Western Siberia), Ufa: Skif Publ., 2013, 272 p.
6. Kaushanskiy D.A., Dem'yanovskiy V.B., Innovative water suppression technology for production wells “Temposcreen-Plus” (In Russ.), Aktual'nye problemy nefti i gaza, 2018, no. 1(20), DOI 10.29222/ipng.2078-5712.2018-20.art22.
7. Patent no. 2558565 S1 RU, Oil production increase method, Inventors: Kaushanskiy D.A., Dem'yanovskiy V.B.
8. Patent no. 2656654 S2 RU, Method to increase oil production, Inventors: Kaushanskiy D.A., Dem'yanovskiy V.B.
9. Kraynov M.V., Goryachev S.E., NK Rosneft actual problems and solutions in the repair and insulation works and water shut-off (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014, no. 5, pp. 104–117.
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For calculating the productivity of wells working at the reservoirs with simple configuration (cylinder, parallelepiped), quite often the models based on the analytical solutions of the filtration equation are used. In such models at the wellbore (the internal boundary of the reservoir) the following boundary conditions are set: constant bottomhole pressure (the first kind) or constant flow rate (the second kind. However, these boundary conditions do not always adequately reflect the processes occurring at the mutual work of the reservoir and well. For this reason, in this work, the new model for calculating transient productivity of wells is developed. It is based on the third kind boundary condition: the linear dependence between downhole pressure and flow rate which is a linear approximation of the lift curve of the well in the operating range of well’s flow rates. This approach developed by Rosneft’s specialists is applicable for any configuration of wells (vertical, horizontal well, hydraulic fracture) and to homogeneous external boundary conditions. The deduced relations allow obtaining solutions for the downhole pressure and flow rate of the well, provided that the solution of the problem of constant rate production (constant terminal rate solution) for the same configuration of the well and external boundary conditions is known. These relations also allow considering wellbore storage. For problem-solving we apply the method of Laplace transform. Using the developed approach, it is possible to calculate the productivity of wells accounting for the performance of submersible equipment, and, as a result, to estimate potential transient production of the well taking into account the real conditions of its operation.
1. Van Everdingen A.F., Hurst W., The application of the Laplace transformation to flow problems in reservoirs, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1949, V. 1, no. 12, pp. 305–324.
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5. Shchelkachev V.N., Osnovy i prilozheniya teorii neustanovivsheysya fil’tratsii (Fundamentals and applications of the theory of unsteady filtration), Moscow: Neft’ i gaz Publ., 1995, 586 p.
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10. Bedrin V.G. et al., Comparison of ESP technologies for operation at high gas content in pump based on NK Rosneft field tests (In Russ.), SPE 117414-MS, 2008, https://doi.org/10.2118/117414-MS.
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622.276.43 : 678
One of the main issues of recovering heavy oil resources is their low feasibility. The perspective way to solve the given problem is developing new approaches and technologies for enhancement of well productivity, as well as oil recovery factor. Polymers and surfactants are widely applied in tertiary recovery (EOR methods). These substances provide regulated increase in viscosity of reservoir fluids and oil residue. Investigation of polymer interactions with the fluids and rocks, such as contact angle and surface tension, are very important in polymer flooding. The surface tension of polymers is a fundamental parameter in both theoretical and practical meanings. According to the results of surface tension of fluids on various interfaces one can evaluate the behavior of fluids interaction with solid substances, adsorption processes, qualitative and quantitative compositions of polar components in liquids, intensity of capillary forces, etc. The interfacial tension dependency of Sofrpusher and Seurvey R1 polymers from concentration under the pressure is revealed. The structural changes occurring in the system provides increase in the degree of packing polymer molecules in the interfaces of polymer-inert gas. Under the high pressure, and inert gas environment, the polymers swell due to low solubility of nitrogen in polymer solution. The specific property, regarding conformation state of PAA macromolecule, is observed, which is based on transition from elongated form to the ball of polymer. The latter continues swell more taking form from the energy point of view. The lowest interfacial tension for both polymers in all concentrations corresponds to the atmospheric pressure runs.
1. Lipatov Yu.S., Kolloidnaya khimiya polimerov (Colloidal chemistry of polymers), Kiev: Naukova Dumka Publ., 1984, 344 p.
2. Poliakrilamid softpusher: Opisanie produkta (Polyacrylamide softpusher: Product description), URL: https://www.mirrico.ru/services-products/oil-and-gas/stimulation-of-production-and-limiting-water/in...
3. Poliakrilamid seurvey R1: Opisanie produkta (Polyacrylamide seurvey R1: Product description), URL: https://www.mirrico.ru/services-products/oil-and-gas/improving-performance/chemicals-for-enhanced-oi...
4. Mukhamatdinov I.I., Aliev F.A., Sitnov S.A. et al., Study of rheological behavior of systems ‘polymer solution – rocks’ (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 121–123.
5. Belousov Yu.P., Gareev M.M., Trufakina L.M., Terekhova M.V., Viscoelastic gels in pipeline transportation of oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1991, no. 6, pp.37–39.
6. Ermilov O.M., Remizov V.V., Shirkovskiy A.I., Chugunov L.S., Fizika plasta, dobycha i podzemnoe khranenie gaza (Reservoir physics, gas production and underground storage), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1996, 541 p.
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8. Trufakina L.M., Viscoelastic and surface properties of polymer complexes with fillers of different nature (In Russ.), Zhurnal prikladnoy khimii = Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2008, no. 7, pp. 1160–1163.9
9. Arutyunyan R.S., Molecular interactions in a surfactant-water-polyacrylamide system, according to densimetry, viscometry, conductometry, and spectroscopy data (In Russ.), Zhurnal fizicheskoy khimii = Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, 2013, V.87, no. 8, pp. 1332–1335.
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In connection with the increase in the number of highly watered production wells and wells in unsatisfactory technical conditions, new plugging-back methods and technologies are required. One of the current trends in the development of new plugging-back technologies is the use of cements based on special additives that can increase the effectiveness of repair and insulation works.
The article provides information on the characteristics and properties of new cement slurries for repair and insulation works. The main requirements when choosing these compounds were the following: high filtration capacity, good adhesion to rock, cement stone and metal, increased strength of the stone, low water loss and temperature limit of applicability. The authors discuss a fine-grained mineral mixture with a minimum grain-size composition, a modified composition based on magnesian components, shuttered in a liquid, with the addition of magnesium salts and ionic surfactants, and a ceramic composition based on an organosilicon mixing fluid. To improve the efficiency of squeeze jobs laboratory tests and field trials have been performed with new cement compositions to isolate low permeability beds, unsealed intervals and behind-the-casing channeling on the fields Bashneft-Dobycha LLC. It is presented the analysis of workover operations, criteria for selecting candidate wells, techniques, tools and solutions for running a squeeze job, the integrated application of which secures well integrity and its reactivation with minimum achievable water cut and maximum possible oil flow rate accompanied by long-lasting isolation effect. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the work carried out using the data of cement slurries and the optimal conditions for their use.
1. Folomeev A.E., Vakhrushev A.S., Mikhaylov A.G., On the optimization of acid compositions for geotechnical conditions of oilfields of Bashneft JSOC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 108–111.
2. Zdol'nik S.E., Nekipelov Yu.V., Gaponov M.A., Folomeev A.E., Introduction of innovative hydrofracturing technologies on carbonate reservoirs of Bashneft PJSOC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 92–95.
3. Tseytlin V.G., The cause of annular gas shows after casing cementing in gas wells and methods for their prevention (In Russ.), Burenie, 1964, no. 2, pp. 16–19.
4. Ovchinnikov V.P., Aksenova N.A., Ovchinnikov P.V., Fiziko-khimicheskie protsessy tverdeniya, rabota v skvazhine i korroziya tsementnogo kamnya (Physical and chemical hardening processes, work in the well and corrosion of cement stone), Tyumen': Neftegazovyy universitet Publ., 2007, 397 p.5. Asadullin R.R., Karpov A.A., Mayskiy R.A., Matritsa analiza effektivnosti geologo-tekhnicheskikh meropriyatiy (Matrix of analysis of the effectiveness of workover program), Proceedings of International Youth Scientific Conference “Naukoemkie tekhnologii v reshenii problem neftegazovogo kompleksa” (High technologies in solving problems of the oil and gas complex), Moscow, 2016, pp. 98–99.
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In Samaraneftegas JSC more than half of operational wells are difficult. Most of the fields have passed to the final stage of development. The factors that complicate the operation of wells include free gas at the pump reception, the presence of mechanical impurities, scaling, asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits, abundant liquid absorption, curvature of the wellbore, low reservoir pressures, etc. In this regard, the urgent task is to find new technologies, technical solutions and equipment which can reduce the time of repair works, increase the efficiency geological and engineering operations, enhance oil production, and reduce financial expenditure.
The article discusses the complications, modern equipment and methods of work when cleaning wells from mechanical impurities in conditions of low reservoir pressures, and abundant absorption of washing liquid. In order to increase the efficiency of the bottomhole zone cleaning, an analysis of the existing technologies in the market has been carried out at Samaraneftegas JSC. The main criteria for the search for technology were a low risk of accidents, flushing for one tripping operation an interval of at least 30 m in length from proppant and quartz sand, as well as the possibility of circulating in wells with absorption of flushing fluid. To carry out pilot field tests, a well washing technology was selected using a sliding wash device and special jetting pen allowing effectively destroy the proppant or sand plug. The flushing device was successfully tested. In wells with a significant absorption, the loss of flushing fluid is reduced by 3-4 times compared with the losses during direct flushing. Rinsing using this technology in well No. 12 of Evgenievskoye field provided minimal loss of flushing fluid and allowed to clean the bottomhole zone from the proppant plug after hydraulic fracturing.
1. Obidnov V.B. et al., Features of proppant plug removal from gas condensate well upon completion of hydraulic fracturing of formation (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2009, no. 2, pp. 48–51.
2. Dmitruk V.V., Peculiarities of bottom hole washing from proppant plugs after hydraulic fracturing (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnika v gazovoy promyshlennosti, 2012, no. 3, pp. 47–52.
3. Amirov A.D. et al., Kapital'nyy remont neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Workover of oil and gas wells), Moscow Nedra Publ., 1975, 344 p.4. Patent no. 2405914 RF, Method and device for well flushing, Inventors: Nagumanov M.M., Aminev M.Kh., Shaykhutdinov M.M.
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This paper addresses the issue of establishing intelligent technical complex employing real time adaptive control of oil dehydration process. For this purpose functional model of oil dehydration process was developed to present emulsified crude oil as a non-linear multi-dimensional and multi-loop controlled object. Such model became the basis for the development of adaptive automated control system. The system incorporates three adaptive loops. The first loop adjusts control activity in accordance with the response of reference model. The second loop adjusts object control in accordance with the disturbance. The third adaptive loop aggregates information on control command values and object response, for regular update of the reference model in the first loop. Artificial neural network was built for implementing smart control solutions. Neural network was trained using experience-based data from Oil Processing Recommendations by Reservoir Engineering Division of Giprovostokneft. Designed adaptive system enables monitoring of residual water content in oil as well as input parameters of dehydration process. It also calculates transport delay for emulsion breakdown, and enables process control in accordance with the design values of dehydration process model. Control architecture can be integrated into operating facilities or used in the new oil processing facilities. Individual reference model shall be prepared for each object considering properties and content of crude oil emulsion. Adaptive control can be part of the general control system of oil processing facility. The proposed system is one of the phases of unmanned technologies implementation allowing the use of self-contained unattended facilities.
1. Pozdnyshev G.N., Stabilizatsiya i razrushenie neftyanykh emul'siy (Stabilization and destruction of oil emulsions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 221 p.
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4. Verevkin A.P., El'tsov I.D., Zozulya Yu.I., Kiryushin O.V., Operational management of technological processes for oil treatment according to technical and economic indicators (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2006, no. 3, pp. 48–53.
5. Andreev E.B., Klyuchnikov A.I., Krotov A.V. et al., Avtomatizatsiya tekhnologicheskikh protsessov dobychi i podgotovki nefti i gaza (Automation of technological processes of oil and gas production and treatment), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2008, 399 p.
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8. Bortnikov A.E., Kordik K.E., Savinykh A.V., Nitsin A.S., Some results of laboratory experiments on destruction of oil-water emulsions exposed to uniform electric field (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 9, pp. 48–56.
9. Grzymala-Busse J.W., Mroczek T., Definability in mining incomplete data, Procedia Computer Science, 2016, V. 96, pp. 179–186.
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The modern stage of development of regulation of safety of potentially dangerous objects at the international and national level requires justification, maintenance, control and maintenance of the optimal total socio-economic costs of quantitative safety indicators. To ensure the reliability of transportation of the pumped product and the safety of operation of the existing main pipeline system, a set of measures is being implemented that allows to effectively affect areas where there was a loss of bearing capacity, thereby reducing the accident rate by timely elimination of dangerous defects. However, it is difficult to quantify the technical condition of pipeline sections and to quantify the adequacy, efficiency and economic optimality of the developed measures. As a result, there are no necessary regulatory requirements for the reliability and safety of the pipeline system and its components.
The article considers possible approaches to the quantitative assessment and analysis of reliability, safety and risk parameters of oil trunk pipelines and shows that taking into account the available information on the actual technical condition of objects, loading parameters, operating conditions, the current system of diagnostics and software and information support of the operation process, the most promising is the combination of deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis.
On the basis of the developed calculation schemes, the possible basic probability criteria for assessing reliability and safety are determined. Two main approaches to the formation of requirements for reliability and safety are formulated: the establishment of permissible levels (frequency, probability) of emergency situations, comparison with the actual level and its consistent reduction due to the relevant organizational and technical measures and ensuring the optimal combination of costs for ensuring and improving safety and possible damage from accidents and incidents during the operation of the sections of the linear part of the main pipelines. In the future, the procedure for assessing the functional and strength reliability, risk and safety of pipeline systems should cover all stages of the life cycle of objects.
1. Bezopasnost' Rossii. Pravovye, sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie i nauchno-tekhnicheskie aspekty. Analiz riskov i upravlenie bezopasnost'yu (Security of Russia. Legal, socio-economic and scientific-technical aspects. Risk analysis and security management): edited by Makhutov N.A., Pulikovskiy K.B., Shoygu S.K., Moscow: Znanie Publ., 2008, 672 p.
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9. Lisanov M.V., Savina A.V., Degtyarev D.V., Samuseva E.A., Analysis of Russian and foreign data on accidents at pipeline transportation facilities (In Russ.), Bezopasnost' truda v promyshlennosti, 2010, no. 7, pp. 16–22.
10. Lisanov M.V., Sumskoy S.I., Savina A.V. et al., Analysis of the risk of accidents on the main oil pipelines in the justification of design solutions that compensate for deviations from current safety requirements (In Russ.), Bezopasnost' truda v promyshlennosti, 2010, no. 3, pp. 58–66.
11. Agapov A.A., Lisanov M.V., Pecherkin A.S. et al., Modelirovanie avariynykh situatsiy na opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektakh. Programmnyy kompleks TOKSI+ (Versiya 3.0). Seriya 27. Deklarirovanie promyshlennoy bezopasnosti i otsenka riska (Simulation of emergency situations at hazardous production facilities. Software complex TOXI + (Version 3.0). Series 27. Industrial Safety Declaration and Risk Assessment), Moscow: Publ. of Scientific and Technical Center for Industrial Safety, 2006, 252 p.
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13. Dadonov Yu.A., Lisanov M.V., Grazhdankin A.I. et al., Risk assessment of accidents on trunk pipelines CPC-R and BTS (In Russ.), Bezopasnost' truda v promyshlennosti, 2002, no. 6, pp. 2–6.
14. Makhutov N.A., Prochnost' i bezopasnost': fundamental'nye i prikladnye issledovaniya (Strength and safety: fundamental and applied research), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2008, 528 p.
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17. Lebedeva A.S., Aladinskiy V.V., Calculation of indicators of reliability of the linear part of pipelines based on the results of diagnostic studies (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanika i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2008, no. 6, pp. 33–36.
18. Radionova S.G., Revel-Muroz P.A., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Scientific-technical, socio-economic and legal aspects of oil and oil products transport reliability (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 20–31.
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